Bibliography of Pro-Life History: French Primary Sources

Astruc, Jean. L'art d'acoucher reduit a ses principes. Paris. 1766. A guidebook for midwives. Lots of good stuff. But Astruc was reputed to be more of a theoretical physician rather than a practical one (this must be verified.) P. 303 Section III: the most difficult situation for a midwife is when a loose woman is so hopeless that she wants to get rid of her baby. Luckily, this is rare.  She also despairs of the mercy of God. P. 305ff, duties of a midwife in regards to baptism. P.306-7 Baptism by injection if impossible to see any body part. P. 308. Decision of the Sorbonne on Baptism by injection. The fact he publishes this decision suggests there was some doubt about this method. This decision dates from 1733.

Astruc, Jean. Traité des maladies des femmes. Volume 5. Paris. 1765. Chapter 3, p. 47ff contains a very up to date description of contemporary knowledge of generation. Starts with what the ancients thought about generation. P. 52ff. New discoveries that influence current knowledge about generation. A very good sections, even containing footnotes. P. 52 calls ova "cellules." Coincidence? P. 56 references preformationism. I think there might be a problem with p. 56-57-- abrupt topic change. He was speaking of generation and suddenly the topic is menstruation. Another abrupt subject change at p. 64-65. We're back to talking about ovaries. Bottom P. 65: says he doesn't believe in vivifying spirit of semen.P. 66 he says he thinks that rather a vivifying spirit, it's the oscillation of the sperm that causes fertilization, which is a living animal. p. 68 once the egg is in the uterus, it's no longer a simple conception but an actual pregnancy and the conceptus becomes an embryo. P. 70: Extremely interesting reflection. Our common origins must humble us, we were all vile insects and worms (i.e. sperm). God raised us to the dignity of man. Chapter 4, p. 74ff. Difficulties about theories of  generation. P. 75ff answers the objection about millions of sperm having to die. P.76-77 says it's normal for there to be a superabundance of germs, that's how nature/God conserves the species. P. 77 these sperm are insects, not embryos, therefore we should not be alarmed by their destruction. Only the worm who makes it into the egg is elevated to the dignity of man.  P. 84-85: says ressemblances of child to parent due to the fact that there is an imprint of the male in the sperm and an imprint of the female in the egg, and this would be the basis of the child looking like one or the other parent. P.88 says that of the spermatic worms, there are males and females, which explains the sex of children. P. 90. says eggs and sperm existed since the beginning of creation. P. 93 God created all men who have existed and will exist in Adam. (Emboîtement.) Chapter 8, P. 198 ff a goldmine on fetal development. Too much to mention!

Aubry, Paul et Armand Corre. Documents de criminologie rétrospective: Bretagne, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. 1895. A few interesting abortion cases. One from 1712. Says that miscarried babies must be baptized.

Babin, François. Conferences Ecclesiastiques Du Diocese D'Angers: Sur Les Irregularitez. Angers. 1731. Posting here for some of the references.

Bégin, Louis-Jacques. Sur l'avortement provoqué pendant la grossesse, en vue d'éviter a la mère, a l'époque de l'accouchement, les dangers de l'óperation césarienne: Discours prononéc à l'Académie Nationale de Médecine, 16 mars, 1852. Paris: 1852. This pamphlet is essentially a reprint of his speech given at the Académy of Médecine. I'm including it for some of the details in the preface. Says a similar abortion debate took place in England in the middle of the 18th century and in Germany in the later 18th century.

Bichat, Xavier. Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort. 3rd Édition. Paris. 1805.  This particular edition appeared after the author's death in 1802. A very important work because it contains the idea that the fetus only existed at the vegetative level not the animal level (according to his own classification.) It occurs from bottom p. 116-117. This idea was used to justify the morality and legalization of abortion in France.

Bernard, Théophile. Cours de liturgie romaine. 1893. This book is a little goldmine about the practice of baptizing the immaturi. States that St. Albert believed that animation happened at 25 days past conception.

Blanc, Élie. Book Review of L'Animation immédiate réfuté. L'Université catholique. Vol. 1. p. 621-625.

Blondel, Jacques [James] . Dissertation physique sur la force de l'imagination des femmes enceintes sur le fetus. Translated from English by Albert Brun. Leyden.  1737. P. 56 Against the idea that the mother's imagination can affect the unborn child.  P. 3 says the child can suffer from the mother's passions; they can deprive him of rest or nutrition. Ugly scenes must be hidden from mother. P. 4 anger can cause miscarriage. P. 13 Imagination affects foetus from conception, even before animation. P. 46 sex selection impossible; also impossible to choose twins. Section on generation starts on p. 56. From p. 56-61 describes preformationism, both in its ovist and spermatist versions; then proposes another system by Dr. Gardener p. 61 who says that the ovum is a nest that houses the animalcule where it derives nutrition. P. 63 says he does not prefer any system, but affirms the necessity of preformationism. P. 70 says fetus should be considered an individual distinct from mother. P. 72 reaffirms the fetus is an individual.  P. 75 what the mother feels is unknown to the fetus. P. 87ff explains how fetuses acquire deformities.

Bonnet, Charles.  Oeuvres d'histoire naturelle et de philosophie. Volume 6.  Neuchatel. 1779. Extensive discussions on theories of generation.

Bourgeois, Louise. Obseruations diuerses sur la sterilite perte de fruict, foecondite. Paris: 1609.

Bourgeois, Louise. Obseruations diuerses sur la sterilite perte de fruict, foecondite. Volume 2 Paris: 1617. Includes "Récit véritable" and book on advice to her daughter who wanted to become a midwife.

Bourgeois, Louise. Récit véritable de la naissance de Messeigneurs et Dames les enfans de France. Geneve : Droz, c2000. RG 93 .B73 2000

Briand, Joseph et Joseph Brosson. Manuel complet de médecine légale. Édition Belge. Volume 1. Bruxelles: 1837. Section on pregnancy and related subjects starts on p. 105

Brillaud-Laujardière, Charles-Claude. De l'avortement provoqué considéré au point de vue médical, théologique et médico-légal. Nantes: 1863. Has some information about the history of abortion and the abortion debate in France.

Cazeaux, Paulin. "RAPPORT. Observation d'avortement provoqué pour la troisième fois avec succès, suivie de quelques réflexions relatives à cette opéra tion, par M. LENOIR, chirurgien de l'hôpital Necker. (Com missaires : MM. Villeneuve, Gerdy, Cazeaux, rapporteur.)Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Médecine. Séance du 10 février, 1852. Essentially an apology for Lenoir's premature expulsion of a woman whose pelvis was only 5 1/2 centimetres wide. He argues for the intrinsic worth of the unborn, says life begins at conception, but also cites many who do not believe the unborn are intrinsically worthy, including Xavier Bichat. His argument for abortion in life-threatening cases is that since the woman is socially useful and the baby is a drain on society (because he requires sacrifices) it is better for society to save the mother, and since she has the right to self-preservation, it is okay to sacrifice the child. Bear in mind that there were 6 sessions devoted to this topic and many obstetricians intervened on this matter. Voted 30 March, 1852.

Chevassu, Joseph. Missionnaire paroissial. Prones pour tous les dimanches de l'année. Volume 4. Lyon. 1761. P. 141 Says Pope Innocent XI condemned the proposition that abortion of an unanimated fetus is acceptable to save the life or honour of a pregnant woman. Also the idea that the unborn are deprived of rational soul while unborn was condemned by French clergy in  an Assembly in 1700. P. 142 says a woman cannot take a drug with an abortive effect to treat her disease because the soul of her baby is more important than her body. Attributes this belief to Sylvius and others.

Corre, Armand. La mère et l'enfant dans les races humaines. 1882. Contains an interesting section on abortion as practiced around the world. This work gives the impression that abortion is extremely widespread just about everywhere. Lists methods.

D'Agoty, Jacques Fabien Gautier. Anatomie des parties de la génération de l'homme et de la femme, représentées avec leurs couleurs naturelles, selon le nouvel art, jointe à l'angéologie de tout le corps humain, et à ce qui concerne la grossesse et les accouchements. Paris. 1773. P. 12: writes of generation. Takes spermatist point of view. The pictures that go with this book are at the end.

D'Aguesseau, Henri-François "Essai sur l'État des Personnes" in Oeuvres de M. le chancelier Henri-Françoix d'Aguesseau. Volume 5. Paris. 1767. p. 416-467.  P. 430ff section on the unborn. P. 432 When it is in the interest of the unborn, the unborn are treated as born-- the law accords rights in advance. When the unborn have no interest, they are not considered separate and distinct animals, but part of the woman, and  who may not harm or profit anyone else. P. 433 the first motive for protecting the unborn is to prevent "supposition" (that is switching babies at birth) and assure legitimate children. P. 444: The unborn have three interests: 1. life 2. honour (origins) 3. goods (succession.) Considers it a fiction that the unborn are "among men." Must not bury pregnant woman before trying to recover unborn. P. 445 the legal fiction that numbers the unborn among men when it is in his interest is the reason abortion is punished so severely. Abortion is considered the homicide of someone who is only the "hope" of a man. P. 445 writes at length about abortion. P. 446 says it would be pointless to point to all the laws that state that those who procure abortion commit homicide.  P. 447 asks whether animation takes place at conception or formation. Says few people believe life begins at conception. Says it is the common opinion of philosophers and physicians that animation occurs when the body is organized. Abortion of an unformed fetus is a crime against the father. P. 448. Religiously, the abortion of an animated and an unanimated fetus are different things (crimes); for the state, they are the same thing. P. 461 says distinctions between abortion of animated an unanimated fetuses should be abandoned. P. 650 "Table des Matières"-- says law considers an abortion of one who will become man as a homicide. Says punishment of abortion equally severe for abortion of animated and unanimated fetuses.

D'Aguesseau, Henri-François. Oeuvres de M. le chancelier Henri-Françoix d'Aguesseau. Volume 7. Yverdun. 1772. P. 51. An unborn child is considered born every time his life and interest is concerned.

Debreyne, Pierre.  Essai sur la théologie morale considérée dans ses rapports avec la physiologie et la médecine : ouvrage spécialement destiné au clergé. 4th Edition. Paris : Poussielgue-Rusand, 1844. Part III is of especial interest as it deals with the unborn. Calls it "Sacred Embryology." Influenced John Barry's Medico-Christian Embryology. Barry says he virtually paraphrased the whole thing. John Barry's book does not appear to be heavily cited, BUT Horatio Robinson Storer quotes it in "On Criminal Abortion (in a footnote) as a source on Catholic prenatal baptism.

Dechambre, A. Book Review of  La théologie morale et les sciences médicales (6th edition) by P. Debreyne 1884 but reworked by A. Ferrand. Gazette hebdomadaire de médecine et de chirurgie. No. 1220 mars, 1885. p. 195-198. Useful tidbits. Interesting passage on artificial insemination p. 197.

De Ferrière, Claude-Joseph. Les institutes du droit françois, contenant l'application du droit françois aux institutes du droit romain, Volume 2. Paris. 1701.  P. 351 starts section on abortion. P. 352 speaks of midwives being condemned to hang for having committed abortions.

De la Marche, Marguerite. Instruction familiere et utile aux sages-femmes pour bien pratiquer les accouchemens. Nouvelle Édition. Augmented by Madame Boursier, midwife to Margaret de Medici. Paris. 1710.  Marguerite de la Marche lived 1638-1706. P. 19 says semen is made of pure blood and contains the "idea" of the body parts of the new child. Menstrual blood produces the child's flesh and nourishes him. The two semens must mix to produce a child. (Galenic vision.) P. 22 vivification of the conception comes from the uterus. P. 23 heat must be sufficient for conception to take place. P. 24 Menses believed to stop flowing because they are being used to produce the child. P. 44 quickening: boys move at three months, girls move at 4 months. P. 101 about emergency baptisms.  P. 100 recipe for menstrual retention and also to expel a mole. Considered a "secret remedy." (Note this is in the second part-- number rebegins at 1.)

Deleurye, François-Ange. Traité des accouchemens, en faveur des eleves. 2nd edition. Paris. 1777. Article 193 says that one cannot be seen in the embryo at conception. Article 195 the embryo is formed. Article 196: the face of the embryo is formed. The sex can be distinguished. P.62-63 prefers epigenetic theory, invokes arbre de Diane analogy. Article 719 P. 298 encourages baptism in case of accouchement contre nature if the head presents.

Delisle de Sales, Jean-Baptiste-Claude. De la philosophie de la nature: ou, Traité de morale pour l'espece humaine, tiré de la philosophie et fondé sur la nature, Volume 4.  3rd. edition. London. 1777. Delisle de Sales was an Enlightenment "philosophe" who got in trouble with the censors for his book (hence the publication in London.)  P. 378. Speaks of his horror at the practice of abortion in Formosa. His information should be verified. Says women were not allowed to give birth until age 35, therefore they were forced to abort. P. 379: arguments against abortion. Says women could die from abortions.

Denman, Thomas. Introduction à la pratique des accouchemens. Volume 2. Traduit de l'anglais par J.F. Kluyskens. Gand. 1802.

Desjacques. F. Book Review on L'animation immédiate réfutée. Études: Religieuses, philosophiques, historiques et littéraires.  Vol. XLVII. July 1889. p. 674-677.  This book review has some very interesting leads. Says that Suarez and St. Albert thought that the origin of the soul must be extrinsic.

Desormeaux. "Avortement." Dictionnaire de Médecine. Nicolas Adélon et al, Ed. Volume 3. Paris, 1821. p. 177-189.

Depaul, Jean-Anne-Henri.De l'opération césarienne post mortem a l'occasion d'une discussion soulevés sur ce sujet a l'Académie Impériale de Médecine. Paris. 1861. Pamphlet. Contains many anecdotes about post-mortem c-sections. P. 37ff discussion on post-mortem c-sections when the fetus is younger than 180 days. Discussion on animation. Quotes Debreyne. P. 40 Criticizes post-mortem c-sections performed by non-physicians. Hard to do! Women's death is not certain, only probable.  He is personally against post-mortem c-sections on women who are not at least 5 months pregnant. P. 41ff fascinating items on prenatal injection. Had been argued in Belgian academy of Medicine, 1845.

Deventer, Hendrik Van. Observations importantes sur le manuel des accouchemens. Translated from Latin by Jacques-Jean Bruier D'Ablaincourt.  Paris: 1739. Deventer was a Dutch physician who died in 1724, the first obstetrician to focus on the importance of the pelvis-- indeed, his starting off with the anatomy of the pelvis was unique for his age. This book is a guide for midwives. I did not find any discussion on generation-- it's all about how to deliver children. However, I suspect the translator added decrees from theologians at Paris on the licitness of the C-section in various cases, and how to baptize monsters, as Deventer was Protestant. Table of contents starts on page. XXXV.

Devergie, Alphonse. Médecine Légale: Théorique et Pratique. 2nd Edition. Tome 2. Paris. 1840. Addresses abortion in first chapter. P.6-7 speaks of how obstetricians in other countries accept premature induction as a means of dealing with medical issues; France seems to be the "only" country where it finds detractors. P. 7 First induced premature delivery by Roussel de Vauzesme in 1778. P.8-9 discusses various opinions on that topic. P. 31 Chapter 2 deals with viability. P. 41-42 handy chart of which children can be considered viable or not.

Dinouart, Abbé. Abregé de l'embryologie sacrée. 2nd edition. Paris. 1766. Of course the original was by Francesco Cangiamila. This edition is translated by Dinouart and "augmented" so it's not an exact translation of the original. The gold standard on moral responsibility towards the unborn.

Dionis, Pierre. Traité général des accouchemens, qui instruit de tout ce qu'il faut faire pour être un habile accoucheur. Paris. 1724. Lots of moralizing in this work. P. 78 Three theories on generation. P. 91-92 speaks against spermatism. Section on animation begins on p. 100. Says he does not know when the fetus is animated. Denounces abortion p. 176.

Domat, Jean. Les Loix Civiles Dans Leur Ordre Naturel: Le Droit Public, Et Legum Delectus. Revue, corrigé et augmenté by a number of other jurisconsultes. Paris. 1756. Jean Domat was a prominent 17th century justisconsult. Highly influential. P.12. The unborn cannot be counted as children, and their state is not regularized until birth. But the hope of birth makes us look at them as if they were born. Curators are named for their succession. Abortion is punished as homicide.

Dunot de Saint Maclou, F. "Étude sur l'animation du foetus." Révue des sciences ecclésiastiques. Paris, 1870. P. 1-34. Concludes that in all likelihood, foetus is animated at conception.

Dufieu, Jean-Ferapie. Dictionnaire raisonne d'anatomie et de physiologie, Volume 1. Paris: 1766. The article on "Generation" is chock full of information. Contains a large exposition of current theories of generation, many names of researchers involved in studying embryology. In the section on fetal nutrition, calls the embryo in the womb "homme." Says monsters should be baptized conditionally. Promotes maternal breastfeeding (as opposed to contracting the job to a wet nurse.) A lot of information on the male contribution to generation.

 Du Rousseaud de La Combe, Guy. Traité des matières criminelles. 6th edition. Paris. 1769.  P. 19ff is the section on abortion. Abortion merits death penalty, unless the conceptus has not taken on life. Then the punishment is banishment or something equally severe. Those who take money to commit abortion must be put to death.  Bottom of 19 gives various opinions about when a fetus is said to be animated. P. 20 abortion has always been regarded as a horrible crime regardless of whether the fetus is animated or not EITHER because it is impossible to determine when the fetus is animated. (This was established by Guy Patin (doctor 1601-1672) when called upon to pronounce himself the issue to Lamoignon, President of the Parlement of Paris. ) OR BECAUSE it kills a human being as per Tertullian and Lactantius. Quotes law of Henry II of 1556; References law of Louis XIV 1708.

Duval, Jacques.Traité des hermaphrodits. Rouen. 1612. A goldmine of sexual ideas of the 16th century. The title is a little misleading because it deals with a wide variety issues regarding sex and procreation.  P. 103: Calls the uterus the first manor and domicile of great lords and saints, as well as Jesus Christ. Says Jesus lived there nine months-- which *suggests* life begins at conception. P. 112: Says unborn can sometimes be felt moving at 6 weeks. (113). This leads one to reject Aristotle's opinion that animation happens in the third or fourth month. Has a trick to promote movement-- put a wet facecloth on the belly. The cold will provoke baby. P. 126ff on generation. P. 128, basing himself on Hippocrates, says that boys get human soul from 30-35 days, girls from 40-42 days. Repeats claim some women feel their babies move at 6 weeks. P. 129 says the body could receive the soul after a month or six weeks. P. 129 says all body parts are formed at the same time. P. 197 tells the story of how his first wife died in labour because no one would do a c-section. P. 208 gives examples of successful c-sections.

Estienne, Charles. La Dissection des parties du corps humain divisee en trois livres. Paris. 1546. I didn't find the section on generation yet, but there are passages about the uterus and birthing that could be of interest.

Felice, Fortunato de. "Avortement" in Code de l'humanité, ou La législation universelle, naturelle, civile et politique. Volume 1. Yverdon, Switzerland. 1778. p. 695-700. This collection is also known as the Encyclopédie Yverdon. Condemns abortion. Blames society's laws, making women feel like they must abort. Gives some argument against abortion.

Filangieri, Gaetano. La Science De La Législation, Volume 5. Paris. 1788. Translated from the 1784 edition in Italian. A treatise on law. P. 140ff: What is interesting about this section is that it says to punish abortion, but to prevent it. It shows some consciousness about the circumstances that lead to abortion, and asks for some understanding for the women who have recourse to it. Very Enlightenment.

Floquet, Charles. Avortement et dépopulation: (affaire Constance Thomas-Floury). Paris. 1892. 16 page pamphlet about the criminalité of abortion. P. 14: Says that women who abort are trying to make disappear the germ of a potential being. P. 15: Calls for some cases of abortion to be treated as a misdemeanour to obtain convictions more easily. Says infanticide is a misdemeanour if there is doubt as to whether he lived; makes no sense to treat abortion as a crime in that case.

Flourens, Pierre.Cours sur la génération, l'ovologie et l'embryologie: fait au Muséum d'histoire naturelle en 1836. Paris. 1836. Divides the study of the unborn into ovologie, embryologie, foetologie. P. 169 Says the principle of the apparition of the fetus is very obscure: still not certain fertilization is the cause. P. 169 bottom says that once the fetus exists, he absorbs nutrients and his heart starts to beat. He has his own life. P. 176 definitions of germe, embryon and foetus. P. 179 bottom: compares the development of fetus to a kind of evolution of animals, reminiscent of Haeckel. A few drawings at the back.

Foderé, F.E..Traite de médecine légale et d'hygiène publique ou de police de santé. Volume 4. Paris. 1813. A little goldmine on the subject of abortion for the period. Section on abortion starts p. 377.  P. 380 defines abortion as intention action to kill fetus (when it's often defined as ending a pregnancy.) P.384 Attributes to Byzantine emperors the legal distinction between animate and inanimate fetuses in Roman Law, a distinction he considers to be absurd. P. 384 considers abortion less bad than infanticide because it kills a being whom we do not see and who does not suffer. [Thus feelings are important!] P. 387 speaks of an instrument now used by surgeons to commit abortions, inspires horror. Does not mention its name. We thus see shift from non-surgical to surgical abortion. P. 389 distinction between direct and indirect abortion. P. 395 comments on Henri II's 1556 edict against abortion/hiding pregnancy. Some good details there. P. 407 physiological details of how to tell if there has been a criminal abortion.

Gaillot, H-F Léon. Recherches historiques, éthnographiques et médico-légales sur l'avortement criminel. Paris. 1884. A little goldmine of ethnographic ideas about abortion around the world in the late 19th century. Statements about each ethnic group should be verified before being taken as truth.  P. 51: the foetus is considered to be a money in West Africa, and as an "homme manqué" in Akra.  P. 52 Incas punished abortion with death. P. 66 foetus considered part of woman's intestines in Greek and Roman times. P. 73 early Christianity considered the fetus a human being and the Christian Empire concerned itself with the fetus' soul and his destiny in the afterlife. This concern sparked the discussions on animation. P. 129 Blames midwives for France's abortion problems, demands legal protection for the unborn. This book is a little goldmine, but statements should be used with caution and verified.

Garimond, Émile. Traité théorique et pratique de l'avortement. Paris. 1873.  Covers spontaneous, medical and criminal abortion. Spends the first several pages of his book going over the various definitions of abortion, and criticizes past definitions. P. 5 says if a fetus is killed in the womb but there is no expulsion, the pregnancy is "interrupted" therefore, that's an abortion, even if there was no expulsion, so expulsion is not the essential feature of an abortion. The principal element of an abortion is the death of "the product." P. 7 is definition of abortion. P. 241 history of abortion, esp. the history of the medical use of abortion. P. 245-246 says that eminent British physicians met in 1756 and approved of the use of premature expulsion for medical reasons. P. 246 Macaulay said to be the first doctor to use premature expulsion with a positive outcome. More about physicians who used it. P. 247 in 1811 Burns said it should be used for excessive vomiting and illness in pregnancy. P. 247-248 premature expulsion reached the continent late 18th century, early 19th century.  P. 250 France was late in adopting premature expulsion for medical reasons. P. 251 Foderé was alone in 1813 to defend premature expulsion in France. P.252 first recorded use of premature expulsion by Duclos in 1815. P. 253-254 Stolz the first to promote premature expulsion in France, popularized by his thesis to the Academy in 1833. P. 256 cites Dr. Faure who says that Americans widely practice abortion and infanticide; abortion so common among the upper classes that people don't even bother to hide it; Cites Storer. Cites Burns on how widespread abortion is. P. 257 Medical indications for abortion. P. 257 Delivery must not end with sacrifice of fetus. P. 264 cites Bichat to reject him. P. 267 says fetus is beginning of man. P. 274 says Church allows premature expulsion of baby to save mother or baby's life. P. 420 calls Zacchias the Father of Legal Medicine. P. 445 addresses methods of abortion.

Genet, François. Théologie morale ou Résolution des cas de conscience selon l'Ecriture sainte, les canons et les Saint Pères. Volume 7. Paris. 1710. Written by a Discalced Carmelite. Section on abortion begins p. 48.  Makes distinction between animated and unanimated embryo. P. 49-50 abortion of an unanimated embryo is not a homicide but still a crime.

Girard, N. Les Petits prones, ou Instructions familieres, principalement pour les peuples de la campagne. Volume 2. Lyons. 1754. P. 113ff in the course of a sermon on baptism, this priest denounces people who keep their children too long away from the church, men who abuse their pregnant wives, force them to work, and women who over-eat, giving themselves a miscarriage and causing the baby to die. Says the voices of the innocent will demand justice from the throne of God.

Guillemeau, Jacques. De la grossesse et accouchement des femmes. Paris. 1620.  Contains information on generation. The book was re-issued by his son in 1620. First edition is 1609.

Guyot, Pierre Jean J.G.. Répertoire universel et raisonné de jurisprudence civile, criminelle, canonique et bénéficiale. Paris. 1776. Article on abortion repeats what many other jurists have to say on the subject. The footnote on animation is interesting. Admits that there are many opinions on when it happens, but the most common is at 40 days.

Haller, Albert von. La generation, ou exposition des phénomenes relatifs a cette fonction naturelle. Volume 2. Translated. Paris. 1773. Very detailed book containing a lot of contemporary ideas about generation. P.406 says the rudiments of the animal are in the ovary and Graafian follicle. P. 407 says what becomes an animal is in the ovary. P. 408 says it's not unusual to see teeth and hair in uterus; says they were probably from fetuses that have died and dissipated. P. 417 says conception happens in the ovary. Section XXV, p. 419 ff: describes prenatal development. The sizes are all wrong. P. 424  says some of those facts appear suspect to him. P. 430 concludes that the fetus appears (to the eye) later than once thought. P. 432 Section XXVII "The first asylum of man is the egg." P. 441 in the first days "le foetus échappe à nos yeux." P. 441 says women often do not know the date of conception so this is why authors contradict one another on what they see. Section XXXI p. 441ff the description of the sizes of the embryos are much more accurate. P. 451 ff. Discussion of when fetus is formed. Haller says at 20 days fetus is not formed. Gives the opinion of various authors of when fetus is formed. Important for issues regarding animation. P.453  Doubts the stories of writers that embryos a few days old are formed. P. 455 says we're ignorant about the embryo in the first few days after conception. P.458 Haller sounds uncertain. Says he gives his opinion on facts that have not been established. P. 458ff discusses whether embryo comes from egg, from sperm or both. This book represents the cutting edge of embryology for its time and there is so much that it doesn't know. Many contradictory opinions. Could explain skepticism and uncertainty surrounding the unborn.

Heister, Lorenz. L'anatomie d'Heister, avec des essais de physique sur l'usage des parties du corps humain et sur le méchanisme de leurs mouvements. Translated by "J.B." at the Faculté de Montpellier. Approved by Nicolas Andry.  New Edition. Paris. 1724. Section on generation starts circa. p. 205. P. 213 says it is impossible to know how generation happens; tends towards a spermatist view but doesn't appear to reject ovism.  P. 292 on the section on the fetus, says that the fetus is very different from the newborn and the adult.  Lists anatomical differences. P. 294 seems to reject preformationism, tends towards epigenetics.  Bottom p. 295 speculates that the parts of the body are not already formed, that they are built like a building. P. 297 speaks against the notion that the mother's imagination has any effect on the fetus.

Hilaire, (Le R.P.) L'Animation immédiate réfutée. Paris. 1889. A fascinating book (judging by the reviews) that seeks to refute immediate animation. Several book reviews were issued. The reception of this book needs to be investigated. He was an ex-provincial of the Capuchins when he published this.

Innocent XI. Sanctissimus Dominus. 1679. Condementation of propositions. 34: a woman may obtain an abortion if she risks being killed or defamed.  35: It seems probable that a child does not have a rational soul, therefore abortion is not a form of homicide.

James, Robert J. "Embryon," Dictionnaire universel de médecine, de chirurgie, de chymie, de botanique, d'anatomie, de pharmacie, d'histoire naturelle, &c. Volume 3. Translated by Diderot, Eidous and Toussant. Augmented by Julien Busson. Paris. 1747. Also see article on embryotomie on same page.

Jousse, Daniel. Traité de la justice criminelle de France, Volume 4. Paris. 1771. P. 20 starts section on abortion. Preventing conception is considered a kind of abortion. At 40 days, the fetus is considered animated. P.21 abortion of an unanimated fetus is considered a horrible crime. Considered homicide. If the baby survives, the penalty is lessened.

Lafaye, Georges de. Principes de Chirurgie. 1747. P. 75 says generation is a great mystery. Says there are two debates: whether the fetus is contained in the sperm or "in abrégé" in the egg. P. 76 speaks of "vivified egg." Info about circulation, respiration, nourishment. 

La Fosse. M. "Avortement" in Supplément À L'Encyclopédie Ou Dictionnaire Raisonné Des Sciences, Des Arts Et Des Métiers.Volume 1.  Amsterdam. 1776. P. 715-719. P. 717. Left column. Author asks if it is permitted to have recourse to abortion debate if the woman's life is in danger. The author concludes no, but cites doctors who say yes:  Slevogt, Juncker, Moxius. For the author, the presence of working organs, not animation, is the sign of life. Life begins at conception. Cites Zacchias, Sennert, Low, Mercurialis, Hucher as people who have dealt with the morality of abortion. P. 718 bottom left column. Says the punishment meted out for abortion of an unformed or unanimated fetus is due to the injustice done to the father, whereas the abortion of a formed fetus is homicide. Author questions these distinctions. P. 718 left column second paragraph. Says it would acceptable to abort if the mother's life is in danger if the fetus is not advanced and if he will probably die, or the fetus is old enough to survive birth. Mother's life is to be preferred. P. 719 bottom left column: abortive substances like sabine often don't work.

Le Boursier du Coudray, Angélique Marguerite. Abbrege de l'art des acchouchemens. Saintes. 1769. Nouvelle édition. P. 3 says the midwife commits a crime when she abandons a lonely single pregnant woman who becomes desperate and causes the death of an innocent. Must help the less fortunate. P. 5 says weak babies are buried without baptism. She testifies that she witnessed a dog had eaten the toe of such a weakling. Such children must never be abandoned.  P. 7 in the countryside, if the baby is born at night, we can baptize him conditionally at night because it is dangerous to travel to the church. It's the midwife's job to remind the clergy to warm the water in the baptismal font so that the babies who are baptized don't catch cold. P. 9 the Church prohibits co-sleeping between wet nurse and her charge before the age of one.  P. 89 If baby is too long in the birth canal, he must be baptized conditionally.

Levret, André. L'Art des accouchements démontré par des principes de physique et de mécanique. 3rd edition.1766. I find the "Abrégé sur les aphorismes de Mauriceau" to be really interesting because it answers commonly held beliefs about birth and reproduction. Article 327 P. 57: all theories of generation have their flaws. Article 342 p. 60 the extremities  at six weeks are perfected, except for the nails. Article 386 p. 68 Nature gets rid of defective pregnancies in the 2nd or 3rd month. P. 73 on the nutrition of the fetus.

Liébault, Jean. Trois livres appartenant aux infirmitez et maladies des femmes. Paris. 1582. Book III, page. 532 deals with generation. Says that menstrual serves to feed the newly conceived embryo. Also says that no philosopher has ever said that sperm are animated. P.550: The womb excites the growth of a seed to help conceive. P. 563: The sex of the baby depends on which sex produces the more "virtuous" semen, all things considered (e.g. quality, temperature, etc.) Relates several theories. P. 658 about the debate re: whether ther fetus takes in nutrition from the mouth or the umbilical cord. Also says must not call it a child until all its parts are formed and it is animated. P. 660: Says all body parts are present at day 30 for males, day 36 for females. P. 665ff. Speaks of animation, upholds successive animation. Invokes the Bible to say that the soul is formed with the body and is infused by God. P. 811: Describes abortion as the violent expulsion of a fully formed and animated fetus before he is viable. Valerie Worth-Stylianou says that it was one of the most popular obstetric texts of its time (see her article on translation of French/Neo-Latin texts.)

Marc. "Avortement (Médecine leg.)" Dictionnaire de Médecine. Nicolas Adélon et al, Ed. Volume 3. Paris, 1821. p. 189-197. Says abortion is acceptable in some limited cases.

Mahon, Paul-Augustin-Olivier. Médecine légale et police médicale. Volume 1. Paris 1801. P.214ff Discussion of animated and inanimated fetus. Says it's pointless to speculate on these matters we can't know the mystery of generation.  It is natural to think that animation happens at the moment that existence begins, at a conception (P.214-215.) P. 231 says that according to the law of nature, life begins at conception.

Martel, Gabriel, S.J. Le Chrétien dirigé dans les exercices d'une retraite spirituelle. Lyon. 1757. Says that abortion can be forgiven by the French bishops.

Massuet, Pierre. La Science Des Personnes De Cour, D'Epée Et De Robe. Volume 6. Amsterdam. 1752.  This book was begun by de Chevigni, continued by Limiers, and augmented and corrected by Massuet, who is a doctor in Medicine. Massuet also wrote Dissertation où l'on examine les principaux systèmes de génération de l'Homme, in Bibliothèque raisonnée, tome XLVI.  La Science des Personnes is a kind of catechism on the law. P. 7 begins section on persons. P. 8 legal distinctions are made between children, between those born and those who are not. Birth is an important legal concept. Birth puts the child under the authority of the father.  P. 8-9 premature children who do not survive are not considered successors and are considered abortuses. Stillbirths are treated as if they had never been born OR conceived. P. 9 Monsters without "human form" are not numbered among children unless the father or mother considers them a child.  P. 9-10. The unborn are not considered children, however the hope that they will be born makes us consider them as if they were born. For this reason we name curators and punish the mother for abortion. P. 21 says adoption almost not in use today.

Mauriceau, François. Traité des maladies des femmes grosses.  Paris. 1682. (5th Edition dated 1712 found here. Another dated 1715 found here.) P. 32ff: Two semen theory of generation with a twist: male semen is made of atoms which contain spirits. These vivify the newly conceived entity. Heavy reliance on Greek authors. P.57 blames women for causing their own abortions and causing their children to die without Baptism.

Maultrot, Gabriel-Nicolas. Examen des decrets du Concile de Trente, et de la Jurisprudence ..., Volume 2. 1788. At first glance, this book has virtually nothing to do with abortion (it has to do with the issue of children who marry without parental consent.) But p. 65 speaks about the Catechism of Sens, issued by Msgr. Languet in 1731. It says that this catechism was suspended by order of an "arrêt" on Septmeber 7, 1739 because of an error it contained on abortion. On further research, I discovered that the error consisted of saying that it was acceptable for a woman to cause abortion to save her life if her fetus was not animated or if the fetus was advanced enough to hope that he would survive birth.

Moye, Jean-Martin. Du Soin extrême qu'on doit avoir du baptême des enfants dans le cas d'une fausse-couche ou de la mort d'une femme enceinte. Metz 1764.

Noailles, Cardinal Louis Antoine de. Conferences ecclesiastiques de Paris sur le mariage, ou l'on concilie la discipline de l'Eglise, avec la Jurisprudence de Royaume de France. Volume 1. New Edition. Paris. 1748. But the material may be dated earlier...check.  P. 385ff condemns abortion. P. 391 mentions an arrêt of the Parlement d'Aix of 1615 which condemned a priest to be hanged for having procurred an abortion of his girlfriend, even though the baby lived. Lots of good material in this document.

Nihell, Elizabeth. La cause de l'humanité réferée au tribunal du bon sens et de la raison, ou traité sur les accouchemens par les femmes. Translated from the French. Paris. 1771.  Original edition 1760. Denounces accoucheurs and their instruments.

Orfila, Mathieu. Traité de Médecine légale. Volume 2. 3rd Edition. Paris. 1836. Section on abortion begins p. 329. P. 330-331 says that it was never the intention of the legislator to imprison a doctor for treating a woman with abortion. P. 331 favors abortion for narrow pelvis. P. 347ff states that in 1756 English obstetricians gathered together and decided that premature expulsion was medically acceptable. Names the English obstetricians. P. 350 ff principals of premature expulsion. P. 356 to the objection that premature expulsion is immoral, he says that "destructive" operations are no more moral.[i.e. that's what you're looking at if you don't induce prematurely.]

Paré, Ambroise.   Deux livres de chirurgie, de la génération de l'homme, & manière d'extraire les enfans hors du ventre de la mère, ensemble ce qu'il faut faire pour la faire mieux, & plus tost accoucher, avec la cure de plusieurs maladies qui luy peuvent survenir.  Paris. 1573. I did not closely scan this document, but it needs to be scanned as it was very influential in its time.

Peu, Philippe. La pratique des accouchemens. Paris. 1694. (Alternately here.) P. 94. Speaks of procurred abortion. P. 178-179 discusses baptism of baby in danger of death.

Pinard, Adolphe. Du Foeticide. Paris. 1901. I made a transcription of the original pamphlet because the copy on Gallica was unreadable and it was unavaiable anywhere else. He argues against operations that destroy the unborn saying that symphyséotomie is safer for both mother and baby. Says that ultimately it should be the doctor who decides the operation used in difficult cases, not the mother.

Pontas, Jean. Dictionnaire De Cas De Conscience, Ou Décisions Des Plus Considérables Difficultez touchant la Morale & la Discipline Ecclésiastique. Nouvelle Édition. Volume 1. Paris. 1736. P. 303 says that the timing of animation is uncertain. P. 308 says a woman in danger of death cannot take a medication that would cause death of baby if animated on the premise that the soul of the unborn child is more precious.

Portal, Paul. La pratique des accouchemens. Paris. 1685. P. 218ff. The story of a miscarried baby, 3-4 months old. The author calls him a "child" and baptizes him. P. 362ff: The delivery of an embryo. He says "this embryo or child." Sounds like he makes the distinction between the two. Also an engraving. The pic looks nothing like an embryo or fetus.

Raulin, Joseph. Instructions succinctes sur les accouchements, en faveur des sages-femmes. Yverdon Switzerland, 1770. P.24 Beginning of chapter on conception. P.25 says the parts of the new human are contained in the egg. P. 26 says sperm has a spirit.  P.41 Discusses fetal development.  P. 58 discusses fetal nutrition. P. 112. Discusses abortion.

Ravoton, Hugues. Pratique Moderne de la chirurgie. Volume 3. Paris. 1776. Contains many interesting tidbits on fetal development and birth. Says that, according to Jerome Florentin, miscarried babies should be baptized. It's interesting that he cites Jerome Florentinus and NOT Cangiamila.

Richard, Charles-Louis. "Animation."Dictionnaire universel, dogmatique, canonique, historique, géographique et chronologique, des sciences ecclésiastiques.  Paris. 1760. P. 243. Says it is commonly believed that animation happens at 40 days, but cites Jerome Florentini as saying that this is doubtful and that all abortuses must be baptized.

Richer, François. Causes célèbres et intéressantes avec les jugemens qui les ont décidées, Volume 2. Amsterdam. 1772. This gives all the details surrounding the Girard-Cadière affair of 1730-1731. Père Girard was a Jesuit and spiritual director of young Marie-Catherine Cadière. He got her pregnant and gave her a drink to induce abortion. This contains trial details. Very sordid stuff. Not for modest eyes. The affair was widely commented in its time.

Ritter von Plenck, Joseph Jacob. Elémens de l'art des accouchemens. Translated by J. Pitt. Lyon: 1789. P. 109 says it is never acceptable to procure abortion. C-section is preferable.

Rosiau, J.-J. Médecine pratique populaire, secours à donner aux empoisonnés et aux asphyxiés, et nouveau traité d'embryologie sacrée. 3rd Edition (First published 1833.) Paris. 1839. Section on Sacred Embryologie begins p. 341. This book was intended for use by clergy.  Borrows quite a bit from Dinouart/Cangiamila. P 353 begins section on animation. Attributes to St. Basil and Zacchias the idea that animation begins at conception (note-- not absolutely certain that Basil believed in animation at conception.) P. 364ff relates an anecdote of how when he was studying medicine his professor told him that he did not believe in baptism and thus did not baptism abortuses unless asked by the parents. Rosiau states: if that's the opinion of a professor of medicine, should it be surprising that nurses and others dispose of the miscarried without a second thought?

Rousset, François. Traitte nouveau de l'Hysterotomotokie, ou Enfantement Caesarien. Paris. 1581. The first physician to advocate for the c-section on living women. He was sharply attacked for this opinion. Lots of case histories.

Sabatier,Raphaël Bienvenu . Traité d'anatomie complet. Paris. 1755. Says the miscarried must be baptized. NOTE-- this was published before Dinouart (but still after Cangiamila.) Cites Jerome Florentini for the idea that aborted fetuses must be baptized.

Saint-Ildephont,  Guillaume-René Le Febure De. Le manuel des femmes enceintes, de celles qui sont en couches, et des mères qui veulent nourrir. Paris. 1777. P. 3 attributes to a vivifying spirit in sperm the ability to conceive. This appears to be a very basic pregnancy guide.

Smellie, William. Observations sur les accouchemens. Volume 2. Translated by M. de Preville. Paris. 1756. Posting mostly for the leads it could offer. Has case histories from a number of obstetricians including French ones.

Sue, Pierre. Essais historiques, littéraires et critiques, sur l'art des accouchements.  Volume 2. Paris. 1779.  I did not closely scan this book, but it contains lists of everything ever written on the subject of midwifery, including many books on generation with interesting titles. This book needs to be mined. If all these books were to be read, you would virtually know everything about the unborn in the Early Modern era.

Soulatges, Jean-Antoine. Traité des crimes, divisé en deux parties... Nouvelle édition. Volume 1. Toulouse. 1785. P. 299-300 prevention of formation of an embryo is considered an abortion and just as bad as the abortion of an animated embryo. Death penalty, condemned to be hanged. P. 300 if a woman declares her pregnancy to the King, she will not be prosecuted for concealment?

Tardieu, Ambroise. Etude médico-légale sur l'avortement; suivie d'observations et de recherches pour servir à l'histoire médico-légale des grossesses fausses et simulées.  Paris: 1863 (First published 1855). Essentially a review of the literature on abortion and pregnancy to help prosecutors be able to distinguish the signs of abortion.

Thorillon, M. Idées Sur Les Loix Criminelles, Ou l'on propose 460 Loix nouvelles en place de celles qui existent aujourd'hui .... Volume 1. Paris. 1788. p. 119ff: proposes a law for abortion, proposes the death penalty. Says that "recellement" (concealment) and abortion are often confused. The distinction between animated and unanimated fetuses is a dangerous distinction.

Trastour, Armand. Dissertation sur l'avortement. Paris. 1825. P 13. Says for a long time it was unrecognized that a fetus could be sick.  Says Velpeau says that many embryos are disorganized. Says this is how monsters are caused.

Varendée, Jean. Traité des maladies des femmes grosses.  Third Edition. Paris. 1781. P. 60 believes in two semen theory. P. 77: Says male is formed circa 30 days. P. 79: Calls the timing of formation and animation a Gordian knot. P. 180: Section on abortion. Calls a very early abortion an effluxion.  P. 184: Speaks of voluntary abortion. Condemns it. Says women often kill themselves in trying to abort. P . 185: Abortion more dangerous than childbirth.

Vennette, Nicolas. De la génération de l'homme ou Tableau de l'amour conjugal. 8e édition. 1716. Has a chapter on animation. Has an epigenetic view of formation, but seems somewhat traducianist in his views on animation, but says we ultimately don't know when animation occurs. Cites Sennert.

Velpeau, Alfred. Embryologie ou ovologie humaine, contenant l'histoire descriptive et iconographique de l'oeuf humain. Paris. 1833. Contains numerous drawings of the unborn in the back. Section on the formation of the embryo begins on p. 75.  P. 76 cites Prévost and Dumas on how long it takes for the embryo to travel down the oviduct to the uterus. P. 77 Interesting statement:"the embryo exists in the human ovum at 10 days and perhaps before." Proceeds to tell the unlikely story of a miscarriage at 13 days producing a recognizable embryo. Says the umbilical cord already existed. P. 77 says the embryo is formed between Day 8 and 12. Says the vivified germ has never been observed in the human species.

Velpeau, Alfred. Traité complet de l'art des accouchemens ou tocologie théorique et pratique: avec 16 Planches gravées, Volume 1. 2nd edition, corrected and augmented. Paris. 1835. A goldmine.  The history of Obstetrics starting on page XXV is awesome. Has an exhaustive list of obstetricians historians of the subject should know about.  Section on reproduction starts p. 133, starts with history of embryology. Cites Prévost and Dumas p. 139. Also on p. 142, 146, 147.  Section on sex of fetus p. 247 is interesting. Section on fetus is on p. 320. P. 148 the mechanism of fertilization is very mysterious.

Verdier, Jean. La jurisprudence particuliere de la chirurgie en France, ou Traite historique et juridique des etablissemens, reglemens, police, devoirs, foncitns, honneurs, droits & privileges ...Volume 2. Paris. 1764. P. 614 says it is possible to perform abortion through surgery- the earliest reference to surgical abortion that I have seen. Chapter XV p. 583ff extensive medical, legal and theological discussions about abortion and prenatal baptism-- too much to summarize. A veritable goldmine on the unborn. This could be the topic of a thesis or article.

Villeneuve, Étienne. De l'avortement provoqué dans les cas de rétrécissement extrême du bassin, considéré au point de vue religieux, judiciaire et médical: Réfutation du Rapport de M. Cazeaux. Marseille. 1853. A pro-life refutation of the arguments used by Paulin Cazeaux in the debate over abortion that was held by the Académie de Médecine in February-March 1852 [See Cazeaux's report above.] Very interesting insights. Holds out some criticism for Bégin for his lukewarm defense of the pro-life position. Has criticism for a number of participants in that abortion debate. P. 31: Criticizes Alfred Velpeau for stating a fetus is not a human being. P.34 mentions a case of criminal abortion, the woman's name was Caroline Egasse (she died); midwife is mentioned as the abortionist, a doctor who was an accomplice was said to have been acquitted. P. 34 mentions De Breyne's work on medical theology. P.36 says English obstetricians can't be trusted in matters of abortion because they are guided by personal judgement. Later in book gives scientific refutation of abortion in cases of narrow pelvises.

Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences année 1699 [-1783], avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique pour la même année. Tirés des registres de cette Académie. Troisième édition, revûe, corrigée & augmentée. Lyon: 1743. Contains discussion of fetal development. Says fetus becomes man.

Rituel de Québec 1703.

Journal des connaissances médico-chirurgicales, Volume 2, Numéro 1. Important account of the case/arguments that launched the abortion debate in France.

La Revue médico-chirurgicale de Paris: journal de médecine et ..., Volume 11

Apologie des jugemens rendus en France contre le schisme par les tribunaux seculiers, dans laquelle on etlabit. 1. L'injustice & l'irregularite des refus de sacremens, ... contre ceux qui ne sont pas soumis a la Costitution Unigenitus. 2. La competence des juges laiques pour s'opposer a tous ces actes de schisme, Issue 501. Volume 1. Third Edition. 1753. P. 386: Arrêt of 7 September, 1739 says the curé did not have to teach the Archbishop of Sens' statements on marriage (no parental consent needed) and abortion (a woman could cause abortion if her life was in danger, her fetus was not animated or the fetus was old enough to survive birth).

Acte d'appel de la Constitution Unigenitus, et du nouveau catechisme donné par M. Languet archevesque de Sens, au futur Concile general, interjetté par plusieurs cures, chanoines, ... et Memoire justificatif ou l'on fait voir les innovations du nouveau catechisme par rapport a la doctrine. Volume 3. 1755. Denunciation of Catechism of Sens published by M. Languet. Article XIV, p. 729 is a goldmine of pro-life sentiment and information. Lists a number of catechisms that denounce abortion. He also says that not many catechisms speak of it.

Annales de la société des soi-disans Jésuites ou recueil ..., Volume 5. 1771. No author given. All the bad things Jesuits ever said or did. Some Jesuits were reputed to believe that it was acceptable for a woman to abort an unanimated fetus to save her honour.

Juste idée, que l'on doit se former des Jesuites.  No author given. Utrecht. 1761.  P.48 Attributes the idea to the Jesuits that a woman may abort to save her honour, or even to save an ecu. Gives three footnotes as references.

Le vrai recueil des sarcelles, mémoires, notes et anecdotes intéressantes: le Philotanus, et le portefeuille du diable : ouvrage absolum. nécessaire á ceux qui veulent grendre une juste idée de la soi-distant Société de Jésus, Volume 1. Amsterdam. 1764. No author given. Google says it's Nicolas Jouin. Essentially a scandal sheet. P. 337 talks about the Catechism of Sens and Msgr. Languet's opinion that a woman can abort an unanimated fetus if her life is in danger. Many good details. Author says that you can never really know if the fetus is animated or not and authors are not even on agreement WHEN the fetus is animated, so there is confusion.

Dictionnaire portatif de jurisprudence et de pratique: a l'usage de tous les citoyens & principalement de ceux qui se destinent au Barreau. Volume 1. Paris. 1763. Author is listed as "M.D.P.D.C. Avocat au Parlement.". Although this source does not say much about abortion, it gives the gist of what people would have thought of it: it's the prevention of birth, or making the fetus die through drinks and drugs. It was considered a capital crime.

Histoire particulière des Jésuites en France. Ou Actes, Dénonciations, Conclusions et Jugemens de la Faculté de Théologie de Paris, touchant les Jésuites & leur doctrine, avec les pièces qui y ont rapport. Depuis l'année 1550 jusqu'à ce jour (Mai 1762). Sorbon, 1762. Yet another Jesuit scandal sheet. Attributes to Père René Airault the idea that a woman may abort an unanimated fetus to save her honor. An arrêt from the Conseil d'État was issued against him in 1644 to get him to stop teaching that idea. This entry from a biographical dictionary of Jesuits gives more information.

Memoire pour le sieur Balestier, chirurgien à Champs, appellant contre la Veuve Colnet, intimée. 1765. This surgeon was accused of trying to administer abortion. This memoire takes his side, trying to show his innocence.

L'Apologie des Jésuites convaincue d'attentats contre les loix divines et humaines. Volume 2. 1763. Another Anonymous anti-Jesuit hate book. Explains why the Jesuits had to be suppressed. P.110 explains Jesuit thinking in proposition that a mother may abort unanimated fetus to save her life; it's a proposition that has never been condemned.  P. 111: Theory of double effect (though this is not explicitly invoked.) Jesuits thought it was okay to get abortion for medical reason if fetus is not animated.

Comptes des constitutions et de la doctrine de la Societé, se disant de Jesus, rendus au Parlement de Normandie, toutes les chambres assemblées, les 16, 18, 19, 21, 22 & 23 janvier 1762. No date or author given. Google Books says the author is  Jean Gaspard Benoit Charles. Says it presents Jesuit theology. P. 119 cites Cardinal de Lugo who says that it is acceptable to counsel abortion to a suicidal pregnant woman who wants to save her honour. It is permitted to abort to save the mother if the fetus is not animated.

Dictionnaire ecclesiastique et canonique portatif, ou, Abregé méthodique de toutes les connoissances nécessaires aux ministres de l'eglise: & utiles aux fidéles qui veulent s'instruire de toutes les parties de la religion. Paris. 1765. Google Books lists the author as Jean François Brezillac.  P. 170 definition of abortion, calls it homicide. Same page: Definition of "avorton", says the aborted can and must be baptized.

"Avorton", Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences des arts et des métiers, Volume 4, Part 1. Lausanne & Berne. 1781. References Florentini's work on baptizing the aborted. We don't know the exact time a fetus is animated.

Extraits des assertions dangereuses et pernicieuses en tout genre ... soutenues et enseignées par ... les Jesuites. Volume 3. Paris. 1762. This is a very useful work because it's a collection of erroneous statements made by Jesuits and filed with the French Parlement in response to an arret. The names of the Jesuits are given, as well as their errors. P. 233ff is the section on abortion.

Book Review. Dictionnaire universel de médecine, de chirurgie, de chymie, de botanique, d'anatomie, de pharmacie, d'histoire naturelle, &c. Bibliothèque raisonnée des ouvrages des savans de l'Europe, Volume 14; Volume 46. Jan-Mar. 1751.  p. 111-124.  P. 119 the reviewer complains that the article on abortion is 31 pages-- too long. Has 115 observations.  Should have saved the length for other diseases.

Compte général de l'administration de la justice criminelle - France - Algerie - Tunisie: pendant l'année 1852. The date says 1754 but it's probably 1854. Says there were 25 convictions for abortion. Lots of crime stats.

"Grossesse." Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers: Fo-Gy. Tome septieme. Société des Gens de Lettres. Paris. 1757. P. 961 right column. Says we must look at the embryo as a precious germ that a woman is charged with growing, who will share the purest part of the substance that she consumes.She must be interested in the care of the precious "rejetton."

"Foetus."  Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers: Fo-Gy. Tome septieme. Société des Gens de Lettres. Paris. 1757. pp. 1-7. The main interest of this article is the section on prenatal development. The timing is all wrong, but it would suggest what knowledgeable people would have known about the unborn in mid 18th century France.

"Generation." Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers: Fo-Gy. Tome septieme. Société des Gens de Lettres. Paris. 1757. pp. 559-574. An extremely extensive discussion about generation, and theories of generation both ancient and modern. Gives a very good summary of the contemporary scientific arguments for ovism and spermatism.

Code criminel de l'empereur Charles V, vulgairement appelé la caroline: contenant les loix qui sont suivies dans les juridictions criminelles de l'Empire : et à l'usage des Conseils de guerre des troupes suisses.  Neuveville, Switzerland. 1742. P. 183ff Says it's very difficult to convict of this crime, therefore, a judge may allow for torture to obtain information about the circumstances of the abortion. The death penalty only applies if all the parts of the body are formed. If unformed, banishment or some other arbitrary penalty such as whipping should be applied.

Book Review of "Embryologie Sacrée." Journal Écclésiastique. May 1761. p.69-76 A good summary of the book. Although the journal is actually published by Abbé Dinouart so there might be some bias here but it's still useful.

Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences année 1699 [-1783], avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique pour la même année. Tirés des registres de cette Académie. Troisième édition, revûe, corrigée & augmentée. Lyon: 1743. Contains discussion of fetal development. Says fetus becomes man.

Arrêt Thénot in Journal du droit criminel, ou jurisprudence criminelle de la France:recueil critique des décisions judiciares et administratives sur les matières criminelles. 1852.

Nouvelles ecclésiastiques, ou, Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la Constitution Unigenitus. 1737. P 185ff discussion of the scandalous Catechism of Sens and the arrêt pronounced against him.

Book Review on Dissertion Medico-Theologica by Diego Matheo Zapata. Memoires pour L'Histoire des Sciences et des Beaux Arts. Paris. 1738. P. 1511-1513. Says that the baptism of the unborn would be invalid as per St. Thomas.

Consultation de messieurs les avocats du Parlement au sujet du mandement de M. l'archevesque de Sens, du 6. avril 1739. qui ordonne sous peine de suspense d'enseigner le nouveau catéchisme que ce prélat a donné à son diocèse. 1739.

LA CADIÈRE section...

Chaudon, Jean-Baptiste. Recollement De La Demoiselle Cadiere: Observations. 1731.

D'Argens, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer Marquis. Memoires et lettres de M. le marquis d' Argens. London. 1755. Some commentary on l'affaire Cadière. A few salacious details.

Memoire instructif pour le pere Jean Baptiste Girard jesuite contre Maries Catherine Cadiere et le procureur general du roy. 1731.

Histoire du procez entre Demoiselle Cadiére & P. Cadière. Aix. 1733.

Motifs des juges du Parlement de Provence, qui ont été d'avis de condamner le Pere Jean-Baptiste Girard, envoyez à M. le Chancelier le 31. Décembre 1731. 1733.

Lettre D'Un Magistrat Désinteressé A Un De Ses Amis, Au Sujet Du Procès Intenté contre le Pere Girard Jesuite. 1731.

REPONSE AU MEMOIRE INSTRUCTIFF du Pere Jean-Batiste Girard, Jesuite: POUR DEMOISELLE CATHERINE CADIERE, de la Ville de Toulon , Apellante à minimâ de Decret d'assigné rendu par Messieurs les Commissaires du Parlament, le 23. Février dernier, & au principal Querellante en Inceste spirituel, & autres Crimes. 1731.