Bibliography of Pro-Life History: English Non-American Primary Sources

Aristotle's Masterpiece. An anonymous marriage manual first published in 1684. Editions had been re-published right down the to 20th century. Claims that the soul is infused at the 45th day after conception. This article says it was one of the most popular books ever on making babies.

Aristotle's New Book of Problems. 8th edition. London: 1741. This book is more or less an advice book for the popular classes, containing popular ideas about sex and the formation of the embryo.

Aristotle's Compleat master piece In three parts ... To which is added, A treasure of health; or, The family physician ... The twenty-eighth edition. London: 1762. P.46 begins description of the formation of the embryo. It was extremely inaccurate even by the standards of the time. An epigenetic development. The embryo receives a soul 40 days after conception.

Aitken, John. Principles of Midwifery, Or Puerperal Medecine. Edinburgh. Second Edition. 1785. P. 42ff section on conception. Skeptical of ovism. P. 44 Transfer of parental likeness is not sufficiently accounted for in the theory that the semen stimulates the germ to life. P. 80 The purpose of embryotomy is to save the mother's life which is comparatively more valuable.

Ashwell, Samuel.  A Practical Treatise on Parturition: Comprising the Attendant Circumstances and Diseases of the Pregnant and Puerperal States. London. 1828. P. 403 Relates the story of a successful c-section performed by an uneducated Irish midwife.

Barlow, James. "On the Advantages and Disadvantages of inducing premature Labour, with a View of superceding Embryulcia, the Section of the Symphysis Pubis, and the Cesarean Operation." The London Medical and Physical Journal. Volume 5, Number 1. January 1800. P. 40-53. Dated November 20, 1800. P.41 The cruelty inflicted on the fetus by the crotchet as well as risk of injury to mother are sufficient reasons to induce premature labour. P. 41: This operation can seldom be put into practice without knowing that a mother cannot deliver a live child. P. 51 The topic of the sacrificing of the fetus to save the life of the mother is of utmost importance to the obstetric community. P. 53 Says that one objection against premature labour is the secrecy under which it is performed; should the method of premature labour be revealed to the general public, it would lead to large-scale abortive attempts, defeating the purpose of the operation, which is to save human life.

Barnes, Robert. A Synoptical Guide to the Study of Obstetrics: Being an Aid to the Student in the Class-room, in Private Study and in Preparing for Examinations. London. 1883.  P. 100 Indications for medical abortion.

Barnes, Robert and Fancourt Barnes. A System of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery: Theoretical and Clinical ; for the Student and Practitioner. Volume 2. London. 1885. P. 680 Section on Embryotomy. "Reluctantly" discusses "sacrificial operations" which are necessary to obey law that child must be sacrificed to save mother's life. Images of embryotomy in section.

Barnes, Robert and Benjamin F. Dawson .Lectures on Obstetric Operations. Second Edition. London. 1871. P. 307 Discusses his new method of embryotomy by wire-écraseur

Barnes, Robert. Obsetric operations, including the treatment of haemorrhage.  With Additions by Benjamin F. Dawson. 2nd American Edition. New York. 1871. P. 287. "We are not justified in regarding that life as less sacred because we believe that, in the ordinary course of disease, it will not last beyond a very short time." (Then ironically adds) A woman should not have her life shortened because her child might survive, but not her.  Says that the life an unborn child is a vegetative life. Should not be compared to the life of the mother. The life of the mother in itself must not be counted; but also her role as wife and mother.

Barnes, Robert. "On the Indications and Operations for the Induction of Premature Labour, and for the Acceleration of Labour." The Lancet. April 13, 1861. P. 365-367.  Summary of meeting of Obstetrical Society of London, April 3, 1861. Extensive discussion on methods used for premature labour. Many intervenors added their methods of premature induction.

Barnes, Robert. "The Alternatives to Craniotomy". The British Medical Journal. October 2, 1886. P. 622-625. P. 622 Cites Tyler Smith's article from 1859 calling for the abolition of craniotomy. P. 623 Doesn't know if medicine is sufficiently advanced to advocate c-section as an alternative to craniotomy.  Remains to be proved that Porro's operation is safer than c-section. P. 624 Considers "old moral law" that mother has the right to save her life by sacrificing her child. Difficult to obtain skill to practice c-section; opportunities are limited to gain the skill to perform it. P. 624 has roundabout argument for craniotomy: if you save the mother through craniotomy, the baby dies but she goes on to have several more children through premature labour, in that sense, it saves more lives than c-section.

Barnes, Robert. "The Indications for Premature Labour." The Lancet. August 11, 1894. Says life of mother is first consideration. Safety of child is secondary. Advances in abdominal surgery diminishing need for destructive operations. The day is at hand when c-section will supplant embryotomy. He also names a number of circumstances under which premature labour or abortion is justified.

Bartley, Onesiphorous W. A treatise on forensic medicine; or, Medical jurisprudence. Pages 1-10 deal with abortion. Page 2: Calls abortion "murder."  P. 5: says every woman who attempts abortion risks her life. P. 5-6 says many people imagine that there is no life in the embryo until quickening. He says that life begins at impregnation.The fact that people do not feel the child makes them think there is no life. P. 10 speak of abortionists who advertize their services.

Bellinger. Francis. Tractatus de Foetu Nutrito: Or, a Discourse Concerning the Nutrition of the Foetus in the Womb, Demonstrated to be by Ways Hitherto Unknown. London: 1717.  This treatise is of interest because it's in English.  The second-last chapter has a description of conception. He doesn't specifically adhere to preformationism, but his description seems to be a strange mix of spermist and epigenetic beliefs. The last chapter discusses the feeding of newborn. Recommends breastfeeding and criticizes the use of other foods. Also, this author drops a lot of names as far as scientists with an opinion on the unborn.

Blake, Andrew. Aphorisms illustrating natural and difficult cases of accouchement. London. 1817.

Bland, R. Observations on Human and on Comparative Parturition. London. 1794. P. 63 Premature labour before the sixth month will almost certainly kill the child but save the mother.

Blundell, James. Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Midwifery. Charles Severn, Editor. Philadelphia. 1842. P. 273 Craniotomy is the most awful operation. P. 283 Life and health of mother is paramount over that of fetus. P. 284 Some say craniotomy should not be used until fetus is dead, but it is difficult to know with certainty that he has died. P. 298 Describes destruction of the "ovum" to prevent further development-- in effect, a surgical abortion. Suggests tubal ligation to sterilize. 1834 Edition. 

Boerhaave, Herman. Dr. Boerhaave's Academical Lectures on the Theory of Physic: Being a Genuine Translation of His Institutes and Explanatory Comment, Collated and Adjusted to Each Other, as They Were Dictated to His Students at the University of Leyden. London: 1744.  By a notable embryologist. The section on Nutrition contains information on fetal development.

Bosworth, Newton; John Mason Good & Olinthus Gregory, Eds. "Physiology." Pantologia: A New Cyclopaedia. Volume IX. 1813. Plagiarizes William Nicholson's article on Physiology in The British Encyclopedia. Says the fetus lives a vegetative life. It may be considered a new organ. At three months, fetus is animated by "slight vegetable life." Influence of Bichat.

Burns, John. Obstetrical works: Containing The Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus; Observations on Abortion; and Practical Observations on the Uterine Hemorrhage. New York: 1809.  Authoritative work on these topics. P. 200-201 descent of embryo from duct to uterus is "at the end of the first month." Names many authorities who disagrees with this, and when they saw embryo in uterus. P. 203. Voluntary muscles do not receive action until fifth month, at which point the fetus is said to  quicken or be animated. P. 34-35 discourse on abortion. Says some people think embryo has no life. Those who prevent life are culpable. That being said, premature delivery and even abortion is acceptable when safety of mother or child demands it. Note: Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus was published in 1799.

Burns, John. The Principles of Midwifery. The principles of midwifery: including the diseases of women and children. 8th London Edition. Revised and Enlarged by T.C. James New York. 1839. P. 350 In cases of severe deformity of the pelvis, agrees to premature delivery before viability.

Cameron, Murdoch. "On the Relief of Labour with Impaction by Abdominal Section, as a Substitute for the Performance of Craniotomy." British Medical Journal. March 7, 1891.  P. 509-514. P 510 Happily advances in medicine make it obsolete to ask whether mother or child should be saved. Photographs of mothers au naturel. Says there is no right to sacrifice the child to save the mother in spite of the fact that the child's life may be unequal to the mother's. (Same article here in Carolina Medical Journal without the photographs.)

Campbell, William. Introduction to the Study and Practice of Midwifery. Second Edition. London. 1843. P. 71 Cites cytogenesis in explaining conception. But does not think that semen contains a cell. Section on embryology begins p. 104.  P. 104 Says we are unacquainted with the earliest formation of the embryo. P. 105 See footnote, no doubt the sperm must penetrate ovum to achieve fecundation. P. 106 Describes early embryo as mullberry-like. P. 108 Debunks idea that man at one point resembles a fish, then a reptile then a bird. P. 174 Section on Criminal Abortion. P. 174-175 Wonders if the legal and medical profession has not encouraged criminal abortion; abortion law that treat abortion before quickening as a misdemeanour gives the impression that life does not happen until quickening. Fetus has life from conception. P. 177 Tells of anecdote of woman who had attempted abortion; the child survived her attempts and lived. P. 185 Virtually all abortifacient drugs are uncertain in their effectiveness; and they can kill they mother. P. 323 About the hostility of many practitioners toward the c-section.

Chapman, Edmund. A treatise on the improvement of midwifery. Third Edition. London. 1759. In the preface condemns the hacks who have recourse to the hook and crotchet before attempting to turn the child or use the forceps. Relates anecdotes on that point. Although he is not completely against instruments, he is more favourable to manual manoeuvres. The Table of Contents have a number of headlines indicating horror stories about mangled children.

Chitty, Joseph. A Practical Treatise on Medical Jurisprudence, (...) Part I. Second American Edition. Philadelphia. 1836. A veritable summa on medical jurisprudence, very heavy on the anatomy lessons. P. 400 Says that the most likely cause of generation is the joining of sperm and ovum. P. 404 By the end of the fifth week the embryo is perfectly formed. For the first three months the embryo is known as an ovum, afterwards as a fetus, although fetus is sometimes used indiscriminately. P. 406 Argues idea of quickening in criminal law has no physiological basis for determining if the child is alive. Extensive discussion of prenatal development. P. 408 Compares fetal development to development in animals; the unborn at various stages resemble certain animals. P. 410 Because a child cannot live before seven months, a charge of murder should not be brought before then, according to authorities, but author disagrees-- they are alive, and she is responsible.

Churchill, Fleetwood. On the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. Second Edition. 1850. P. 67 Misstates the theory of ovism; essentially says Aristotle was an ovist; completely overlooks the idea of emboitement. Cited Thompson. Says it consists of the idea that the mother furnishes most of the material for new life and the male element awakens it. P. 68 Spermatism also mistated. Spermatism was the belief that the embryo virtually existed in the sperm; not just that the man furnishes most of the material for new life. A serious mistake. P. 69 Contact  of sperm and ovum necessary for generation, cites a number of researchers. P. 303 Craniotomy: safety of mother is purchased by the destruction of her child. Calls the distinction between using a hook on a dead child or a live child a "quibble." P. 318-322 Drawings of a child undergoing craniotomy. P. 325 Cites Ould as the first obstetrician to take notice of c-sections.P. 327 Axiom of midwifery that the mother's safety not to be risked for the child. Chilld should be sacrificed to save mother.

Churchill, Fleetwood. Researches on Operative Midwifery. Dublin. 1841. P.329 Extensive historiographical bibliography begins p. 330. Lots of good information-- the history of obstetric operations. P. 1 Says the operation of premature labour is of comparative recent origin.(Suggests abortion was never medically used before its development.) P.2  Names with footnotes all the obstetricians who support premature labour. Very useful! P.3 Baudelocque considered premature labour a crime. P. 4 Names with footnotes French obstetricians in favour of premature labour. Objections to premature labour answered.P.20 In favour of abortion if the child is not viable. C-section would not give child a chance. Cites Aitken also of this opinion. P.23 Cites Denman in favour of inducing premature labour for excessive vomitting and potenitally other health problems. P. 24 More cases justifying premature labour. P.25 Judgement left to birth attendant.

Clay, Charles. The complete handbook of obstetric surgery. London. 1856. P.8-9 Induction of abortion. Says in England all must be sacrificed for safety of mother, whereas in Catholic countries, the solicitude is for the child to  be born. P.9  Recommends abortion of non-viable fetus if it is impossible to deliver a viable one. Citing Radford, says that it is justifiable for abortion to be induced once, wonders whether it is fair if done several times. P. 10 Says that induced abortion is a difficult step for a practitioner. Calls it the premeditated destruction of human life, subversive of all moral law. A woman who knows she cannot deliver a viable child should in subsequent cases seek to save her child, not herself. P. 11 Cites Radford article on the value of fetal and embryonic life. 3rd London Edition, 1874.

Collins, Robert. A Practical Treatise on Midwifery: Containing the Results of Sixteen Thousand, Six Hundred and Fifty-four Births, Occurring in the Dublin Lying-in Hospital, During a Period of Seven Years, Commencing November, 1826. Boston. 1841.

Conquest, John Tricker. Dr. Conquest's Outlines of Midwifery; Intended as a Textbook for Students And a Book of Reference for Junior Practioners; A New Edition by James Winn. London. 1854. Winn's comments are injected throughout the text. P. 176-178 Drawings of a baby having head pierced/crushed. P. 182-183 It was noticed that women who could not expel children at full-term produced living children when they aborted at 7-8 months. This led to the introduction of premature labour. Should not be carried out if woman has history of delivering full-term children, unless there is a disease of the pelvis.

Conquest, John Tricker. Outlines of midwifery; developing its principles and practice. Sixth Edition. London. 1837.

Cooper, Thomas. A Compendium of Midwifery. London. 1766. Section on theory of generation p. 42. P. 58 Embryo is so-called until all the parts are formed.

Crimes Against the Fetus. The Law Reform Commission of Canada. 1989. A Report to the Minister of Justice.

Crosse, John Greene. Cases in Midwifery. Introduction by Edward Copeman. London. 1851. Exactly what it says. Good for details on what pregnancy was like for many women.

Davis, David Daniel. Elements of Obstetric Medicine. Second Edition. London. 1841. P. 535 Early in pregnancy, embryo has appearance of small white maggot. Like Principles and practice of obstetric medicine ( I think this might be same book essentially) p. 837 says that premature labour frequently used in the last 30-40 years.

Davis, David Daniel. Elements of Operative Midwifery: Comprising a Description of Certain New and Improved Powers for Assisting Difficult and Dangerous Labours, with Cautionary Strictures on the Improper Use of Instruments. London. 1825. P. 296 says in this Protestant country the life of the mother has incomparably more value than that of the child.

Davis, David Daniel. The principles and practice of obstetric medicine. Second Edition. London. 1841 (First Edition 1836). P. 837 Says Premature Labour was rarely performed in the 18th century; it was the subject of professional curiosity and conversation (must be verified!).  Since 1800, has been performed in cities and towns of his country (England.) Its original purpose was to produce a live child at an immature stage when the pelvis prevented full-term delivery. Since then, it has been used to save the mother's life in cases of dangerous pregnancy. P. 841 Header-- Of Obstetric Operations Calculated to Ensure the Preservation  of the More Important Life of the Mother. Says in England the established practice has been to preserve the more valuable life of the mother. P. 849 In a Protestant country, the life of the mother is incomparably more valuable than that of the child. P. 856 Drawing of baby who had his head collapsed. P. 857 C-section has failed in object of saving mother in England; better results in France and Germany. P. 873 Says that older writers often believed that if the child is not dead before embryotomy, the operation could be criminal; source of procrastination. Embryotomy often performed when it is too late. Should not be afraid to do it if the mother's safety is in jeopardy. P. 875 Mentions paramount importance of baptism for the child in Catholic countries, thus importance of c-sections. P. 876 If the mother is on the verge of dying through disease, then the unborn child's life becomes more valuable. Similar book published 1825.  Another book.

Dease, William. Observations in midwifery : particularly on the different methods of assisting women in tedious and difficult labours: To which are added, observations on the principal disorders incident to women and children. Dublin. 1783. A general introduction to midwifery. P. 63 Demonstrates a "quality-of-life" ethic. If you're going to save life, enjoyment must be taken into account. (Implicitly citing Hunter-- suffering must be put on a scale.)  P. 65 Even if the woman survives C-section, she may very well be disabled by it and lead a miserable life. P. 71 Does not know if the c-section was ever performed in Dublin.

Denman, Thomas. A Collection of Engravings, Tending to Illustrate the Generation and Parturition of Animals, and of the Human Species. London. 1787. Posting mostly for the illustrations, especially the three-month-old fetus, whose proportions seem to be wrong for his age.

Denman, Thomas. An Essay on Difficult Labours. London. 1787.

Denman, Thomas. An introduction to the practice of midwifery. Volume 2. London. 1794. P. 170ff lots of good commentary. P. 170 When both lives cannot be saved, author feels justified in acting as if the child were dead. P.171 Talks about the dispute about taking away one life to save another; footnote refers to Peu; says he was faithful to the decision of the Sorbonne. P. 172 Says that the decision of saving mother or child supposed to be husband's (I think he is speaking of a Catholic context.) P. 173 Says he won't enter into the discussion of the comparative value of mother versus child, but then refers back to Osborn. Also raises issue of whether child being born has any feeling. Says it's easy to know, just tickle their soles or their hands. P. 176 Child does not have to be dead for craniotomy. P. 215 Recounts how Dr. Kelly told him of the famous meeting in 1756 which led to approval of premature labour. P. 219 Another case where premature labour is used. "Rigor" that had caused death of baby. Subsequent baby delivered prematurely to save baby's life. P. 245 Has never performed C-section or seen it performed. Volume 1 here. Preface has good sources for the history of medicine/obstetrics.1802 Edition Volume 1. 1802 Edition Volume 2.

Drake. Dr. "The Influence of Respiration on the Motion of the Heart.Memoirs: Being a New Abridgment of the Philosophical Transactions. (Phil. Trans. N. 281. P. 1217). London: 1739. p. 155-170. Fascinating. Says that the young fetus must be reckoned among the animals as it has no blood circulation, and the embryo is no more than in a vegetable state. Appears to have an epigenetic approach to development. He does not appear to believe in an immediate human animation or at least does not consider the young embryo to be equivalent to human life.

Enright, S. Esq. Surgeon. "Plea of Pregnancy in Stay of Execution." Medical Times. Vol. II. No. 44. July 25, 1840.  Argues that pregnant should never be sentenced to death. Denounces the distinction of quickening in the Common Law. Says it doesn't make sense. Women pregnant at 13-14 weeks are being executed because of the quickening distinction, but such a child could inherit in civil law. Says body and soul co-exist, essentially that life begins at conception.

"Epitaph: On a Child killed by procured Abortion, in order to hide the Mother's Shame who had been debauched. Supposed to be spoken by the Mother. " The Gentleman's Magazine, January 1740. I blogged about it here. What's really interesting about this poem is that it shows the unborn as both person AND nothing. I think this shows the ambiguous status of the unborn.

Exton, Brudenell. A New and General System of Midwifery: In Four Parts. London. 1753.

Farr, Samuel. Elements of Medical Jurisprudence. London. 1788. (Second edition was published in 1814.) Fascinating work. References various theories of generation including preformationism see P. 17-19. Abortion discussed p. 69ff. Says that most women who abort are of low character. Note: Farr was a dissenter and took his degree at Leiden. The book is based on the Faselius' Elementa Medicinae Forensis. John Keown says that this is the first work of medical jurisprudence in English that advocated for theory of immediate animation (i.e. "life begins at conception.")

Fonblanque, J.S.M. and J.A. Paris. Medical jurisprudence. Volume 3. London. 1823. P. 84 Child in utero has civil rights from conception, but it was long undetermined what the rank of killing a fetus should be. Abortion used to be considered murder, but now is only considered a great misprision. P. 90 Idea of quickening founded on error. P. 90-92 Using instruments in abortion not punishable by law.

Forsyth, J.SA synopsis of modern medical jurisprudence : anatomically, physiologically, and forensically illustrated : for the faculty of medicine, magistrates, lawyers, coroners, and jurymen. London. 1829. P. 385 Explains that quickening was once thought to be the period of animation; but he explains that the unborn is as much alive immediately after conception as any time before delivery.  Quickening also implies first sensation. P. 433 Child cannot inherit by curtesy if born by c-section, that is, if the mother dies during labour. P. 436 Cites Hunter in saying infanticide (which in this definition includes abortion) is not committed as often as is supposed. P. 440 Heading: "Of the Murder of Foetus in Utero, Or Criminal Abortion." Wants to settle question of when fetus is endowed with life. Lists ancient theories of animation. Their tendency has been to countenance abortion rather than to encourage abortion in the early stages of pregnancy; fetus considered part of mother's body. P. 442 Incompleteness of embryo no argument against its vitality. Lack of organic action (i.e. functioning organs) also not an argument against assuming embryo not alive. Possesses vitality from conception.

Foster, Edward. The Principles and Practice of Midwifery. James Sims, Editor. London. 1781. Published posthumously. Sims is pretty harsh on the medical system in the preface-- says there is no real system of midwifery. P. 29 Conception is the union of the prolific principles of male and female forming the rudiments of a new being, which has properties from both parents. P. 32 Doesn't think conception occurs by introducing animalcule into ovum. P. 149 In instrumental delivery, if the fetus suffers, the mother is to be completely uninjured.  P. 150 Instruments should be concealed from patient and by-standers. P. 165 Scissars not only used to collapse head, but cut off other body parts.

Garthshore, Maxwell. "A Remarkable Case of Numerous Births, with Observations." Read to The Royal Society, June 21, 1787. Discusses multiple births at length, with details and anecdotes.

Godson, Clement. "The Induction of Premature Labour." St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports.  James Andrew and Thomas Smith, Eds. Vol. XI. 1875. P. 29-40. Praises development of premature labour as a great advance in miwifery. P. 31 Discusses indications.

Goldsmith, Oliver. History of Animated Nature: Volume 1. The Works of Oliver Goldsmith: with an Account of His Life and Writings. New Edition in 18 Volumes. Volume 5. London: 1806. Oliver Goldsmith was a dabbler in many topics and did hackwork in order to pay off his debts. This book heavily borrows from Buffon, and gives us an idea what a late eighteenth century reader would have known about the unborn.  Stages of Generation in Man starts at page 375. "We are entirely ignorant of the state of the infant in the womb immediately after conception. (...) But we have reason to believe that it proceeds from the egg." (Copies Buffon on the description of prenatal development.) The timeline is all wrong. P. 378: "At all times, the child is equally alive" (i.e. before and after quickening.) "and consequently those juries of matrons that are to determine upon the pregnancy of criminals, should not inquire whether the woman be quick, but whether she be with child; if the latter be perceivable, the former follows of course."

Gooch, Robert. A practical compendium of midwifery. London. 1831. Gooch died in 1830.  P. 218 Quotes his predecessor: better to open six heads unnecessarily than to lose one woman. P.222 Premature labour must be done at seven months.

Granville, A.B. Graphic Illustrations of Abortion and the Disease of Menstruation. London. 1834. Contains colour illustrations of the unborn in the womb.

Greaves, George. Observations on the Laws Referring to Child-murder and Criminal Abortion: With Suggestions for Their Amendment. Manchester. 1864.

Gregory, George. "Midwifery." A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Volume 2. Second American Edition. Unpaginated. 1821. Contains nice images of the unborn and descriptions of obstetric operations. (1815 Version here, with pagination!)

Hamilton, Alexander. Letters to Dr William Osborn, teacher and practitioner of midwifery in London, on certain doctrines contained in his essays on the practice of midwifery. Edinburgh. 1792. Found on Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Argues that embryotomy and embryulcia are not always necessary, that the c-section isn't as fatal as one may think. Interesting case studies.

Hamilton, Alexander. Outlines of the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. Fourth Edition. Edinburgh. 1796. P. 58 Says little can be said that is satisfactory concerning the process of conception. Shrouded in obscurity. P. 59 Says generation happens because either the mother, father or both supply rudiments of fetus. P. 61 Embryo at first appears vegetative-- draws nutrients but does not exert any effort of its own. But it soon has marks of animation; heart is observed beating; prepares fluids; acquires its own distinct system. Says spermatism has almost universally been abandoned; most plausible theory is mother and father furnish material for generation. P. 62 Says embryo is "unformed fetus." P. 67 Little doubt that all the parts of the animal exist in the germ. P. 68 The embryo in its original state is probably fibrous and nervous. Spine of the embryo forms first before any other extremities. P. 69 Beyond the power of anatomical investigation to know anything about the viscera or germination of the embryo.Difficult to determine age of fetus. P. 70 Sizes of the fetus at different intervals in the pregnancy. P. 291 Few practitioners will agree with Dr. Osborn that the child in utero is destitute of feeling, but he is right that the mother should be saved if both mother and child can't be saved. 1806 Edition here. 1803 Edition.

Hamilton, James. A collection of engravings, designed to facilitate the study of midwifery : explained and illustrated. London. 1796. Mostly reprints of others' work.  Intended to be an affordable book showing images. P. 18-19 has embryo at 5 weeks.

Hamilton, James. Practical observations on various subjects relating to midwifery ... Second edition, revised and enlarged. Edinburgh. 1840. P. 253 In extreme cases, head of baby must be "lessened" to save mother. P. 255 Female children smaller than male children; may be able to pass through a smaller aperture in the pelvis. P. 261 Osborn's stats on the safety of embryotomy disputable. P. 261 Says his father addressed Osborn's claims on the safety of embryotomy. P. 269 Under no circumstances is it ever justified to destroy a living infant until the dangerous state of the mother absolutely requires it. P. 274  Says in 1648 the Sorbonne declared that the baby may not be killed to save life of mother (but actual footnote is a little bit at variance-- says mother and baby may not be separated.) Statements to be corroborated. Then cites Denman in the footnote. Says Sorbonne decision at variance with humanity and true religion. P. 280 Suffering of C-section lasts only a few minutes. P. 281 Section on Induced Premature Labour. P. 282 Says foreign practitioners repudiate premature labour. Cites Baudelocque. P. 283 Cites many statistics on the success of induced premature labour in saving human life. P. 284 Interesting footnote; Jacob Jones was first to break the woman's water with a finger, but would decline to describe the operation in lectures; he would only talk about it in private to anyone who inquired.  P. 288 Induction recommended for babies liable to be born above ten pounds at term. Premature Induction requires experienced practitioners in a large town; must be closely watched.

HendeliusDiss. inaug. med. forens. de termino animationis foetus humani. 1724.

Hogben, James. Obstetric studies : comprehending A treatise on parturition. London. 1813. P.21 Vital principle inhabits the fetus from the beginning or soon after. P. 22 Those "officious persons" who cause abortion before quickening are guilty of murder. Premature labour sometimes justifiable.

Hopkins, Joseph. The accoucheur's vade mecum. Fourth Edition. London. 1816. The Fourth edition is one volume, but subsequent editions are two volumes. Sixth Edition Volume 1 1819.  Sixth Edition Volume 2 1819.  Seventh Edition Volume 1 1820.  Seventh Edition Volume 2.   Fourth Edition. P. 114 When delivery is impossible, justified to treat fetus as dead. Save the life of the mother.

Howell, James.  Epistolæ Ho-Elianæ:: Familiar Letters Domestick and Foreign, Divided Into Four Books: Partly Historical, Political, Philosophical: Upon Emergent Occasions. London: 1737. Howell was a member of the privy council. Contains a letter to the embryologist Kenelm Digby. Contains a description of successive animation as a metaphor. An interesting insight into what a non-specialist might believe about the embryo.

Hull, John. A defence of the cesarean operation, with observations on Embryulcia, and the section of the Symphysis Pubis, addressed to Mr. W. Simmons. London. 1798. In response to the pamphlet by Simmons, "Reflections on the propriety of performing the Caesarean operation."

Hull, John. Observations on Mr. Simmons's Detection, ... with a defence of the Cæsarean Operation, ... a description of the female pelvis, an examination of Dr. Osborn's opinions relative to Embryulcia, and an account of the method of delivery by Embryotomy. London. [Undated but circa 1799.]

Hunter, William. An Anatomical Description of the Human Gravid Uterus, and Its Contents. London. 1794. Died 1783.  (Another edition here.)

Ingleby, John T. Facts and cases in obstetric medicine. London. 1836.  P. 153ff argues against use of premature labour in cases involving tumours.

Inglis, Andrew. "On the Results of Recent Improvements in Operative Midwifery in Diminishing the Number of Cases Requiring Embryotomy."  Read before the Edinburgh Obstetric Society, 11th May, 1864. P. 227 Cites Tyler Smith calling for the abolition of craniotomy. P. 229 The value of the unborn child is less than that of the mother.

Jackson, S.H. Cautions to Women, Respecting the State of Pregnancy: The Progress of Labour and Delivery; the Confinement of Child-bed; and Some Constitutional Diseases: Including Directions to Midwives and Nurses. 1798. Written by an obstetrician. P. 51. Re quickening "Many persons suppose this to be the time, when lise first enters into the foetus, and that the pregnant woman is immediately made sensible of this, by its motion. But the . principle of life must always have existed in it, from the first moment of conception."

Jameson, Thomas. Essays on the Changes of the Human Body. London: 1811. P. 32: says human life begins by secretion; concept of aura seminalis, although not mentioned by name. P. 33: embryo is part of the mother. BUT foetus is a separate individual. Dr. Ramsbotham said to possess collection of earliest embryos. P. 35: Doesn't know when the conceptus passes into uterus. P. 37-38 says most modern authors have discarded preformationism/emboîtement and adopted epigenesis.

Leake, John. A Lecture Introductory to the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. London. 1782. Although Leake was not the most renown obstetrician of his time, the interest of this text lies in the profuse commentary he offers. Many textbooks on midwifery are strictly business. In this book, he strays a little bit from the topic providing interesting insight into the 18th century mindset. P. 6 Relates a French case of a woman sentenced to death who said she was pregnant. She was executed and her baby died. P. 18 Primordia of the human body lies dormant in the female ovum. The embryo "vegetates into life." P.8-9 Having circulation with no sensation, the embryo resembles vegetables; like a parasite plant, strikes root and germinates in the womb. P. 9 The solids of the fetus, including the bones, were once in a fluid state. P. 19 Irritiability is the first instrument which Nature employs in the creation of animal life. (...) In process of time, the diminutive being is endowed with life, motion and sensation.P. 20 The mystical union of matter and intellect is a mystery. P. 25 Does not believe mother's imagination affects fetus. P. 37 Embryo has body distinct from mother. P. 46 Cites Crantz, a midwife from Vienna, who says the use of the crotchet should be deemed homicide. P. 47 Some people denounce all instruments in delivery whatsoever. P. 48 Moubray,  Chapman, Ould, Giffard, Smellie, Burton are considered to be the main writers on midwifery in English. P. 71 Begins syllabus of lectures.

Lee, Robert. "Case of Craniotomy." The Medical Times and Gazette.  June 22, 1861. P. 673. Describes a case of craniotomy and the outcomes of subsequent births in the same woman. He remarks that this case occurred before the proposal made by the President of the Obstetrical Society to abolish craniotomy. Mention of a case of a coroner's inquest for the sacrifice of a life of a fetus.

Lee, Robert. Clinical Midwifery: with the histories of four hundred cases of difficult labour. London. 1842. Probably too much good stuff here to comment.

Lee, Robert. Lectures on the theory and practice of midwifery. London. 1844. P. 64 Describes the appearance of some embronic specimens. Subsequent pages have drawings of early embryos. P. 68 Many specimens of early embryos are malformed, diseased.  Cites Wagner, says that descriptions of embryos in the first month are very rare. The ones that do exist are often malformed, diseased; don't give us a good idea of what a normal embryo looks like. P. 313 Craniotomy should only be performed if the child is dead. P. 314 Illustration of child in womb having craniotomy performed on him. P. 318 Says that Denman gave the first account of the development of premature labour in 1795. Quotes him at length. Denman gets his story from Kelly who says in 1756, there was a consult of the most eminent men (obstetricians?) and they all agreed to it (page 319). P. 319 Dr. Macaulay was the first to use it.  Lee says that it has been established that premature labour is needed in cases of distorted pelvises and some dangerous diseases, and he does not know that it's ever been used for criminal purposes in his country. Okay to have recourse to premature labour before the sixth month. Only effective way to do it was puncturing the amniotic sac. P. 323 Table of cases of craniotomy and their results.

Lee, Robert. "Observations on the Induction of Premature Labour Before the Seventh Month of Pregnancy." Medical Times and Gazette. Volume 6.  February 19, 1853. P. 204-205.

Leishman, William. A System of Midwifery Including the Diseases of Pregnancy and the Puerperal State. Philadelphia. 1873. P. 499 Section on embryotomy. Says embryotomy is, in one sense, the most objectionable of operations, because it involves the destruction of a child. The accoucheur shrinks with repugnance from this operation. Such a view overlooks the more important interest of the mother. P. 500 It may be the duty of the accoucheur to sacrifice the child to save the mother.  We are fully justified in giving up the life of the child to save the more important life.  In Roman Catholic countries, fetal life is more "jealously guaraded"  than with us.  If the child cannot pass, there is nothing more irrational to await the death of the child to act. Signs of fetal death important because if we know the child is dead, all scruples vanish. 2nd American Edition here with notes and additions by John Parry, 1875.

MacDonald, Angus. "On the Comparative Advantage of Forceps, Of Turning, and of Premature Labour in Contracted Pelvis." The Retrospect of Medicine: Being a Half-yearly Journal, Containing a Retrospective View of Every Discovery and Practical Improvement in the Medical Sciences, Volume 68. 1874. P. 316-326. Argues against premature labour; says pregnancy should be allowed to go full-term, and, in extremis, craniotomy be used.  Reprinted from Edinburgh Medical Journal.

Madge, Henry. The diseases of the foetus in utero (not including malformations): with an outline of foetal development. London. 1854. As the title implies, it includes an extensive discussion on fetal development. P. 49 Embryo has independent existence from the beginning. P. 54 Human embryo visible after third week after impregnation. P. 78 The embryo at first is a shapeless vegetating appendage. Passages in French. P. 185 Discusses Sir Everard Home's theory that the mother's brain and the fetus' brain are connected through nerves in the placenta. Says it's absurd.

Male, George Edward. An Epitome of Juridical or Forensic Medicine for the Use of Medical Men, Coroners and Barristers. London. 1816. P. 115 Says it is probably that the fetus is animated at the moment of conception. Law of Scotland considers fetus as part of woman's body. Calls this an absurdity. Defends premature labour because it is better to save a certain and valuable life rather than an uncertain one. P. 117 Abortion is a crime usually performed by ignorant people.

Maubray, John. The Female Physician, Containing All the Diseases Incident to that Sex, in Virgins, Wives, and Widows; Together with Their Causes and Symptoms, Their Degrees of Danger, and Respective Methods of Prevention and Cure. To which is Added, the Whole Art of New Improv'd Midwifery, Etc. London. 1730. Also known as Mowbray. Has a peculiar take on fertilization. P. 24 advocates for Aristotle's theory of successive animation.  Mixes his discussion of biology with astrology. P. 28 Animation perfected between 70th and 100th day. P. 55ff Interesting comments on how to influence sex of baby. P. 70-71 Section on conception.

Mauriceau, Francis. The Diseases of Women with Child. Sixth Edition. Translated by Hugh Chamberlen. London. 1727. P.10 Woman must be able to retain her own seed and that of man. P. 12 Imagination can imprint on child only very early in development, close to conception.

Meadows, Alfred. A Manual of Midwifery. First American edition revised and enlarged from the second London edition. Philadelphia. 1871. P. 270 Section on embryotomy. Says that it was his misfortune that he used perforator 16 times; 14 on head, two to chest and abdomen.

Memis, John. The Midwife's Pocket-companion: Or, a Practical Treatise of Midwifery. London. 1765.  P.18 Says the embryo after a month looks like a young frog (re: tadpole.) P. 100 Explains how to use crotchet, but says child must be dead.

Merriman, Samuel. A synopsis of the various kinds of difficult parturition. London. 1814. P. 193ff on premature labour. Should only be done at 7 months, and only if mother has proven that she cannot bear the child to term alive. It should be used to preserve the life of the child. Must consult second opinion.

Mitchell, Joseph T. "On Some of the Exigences Connected with Prenatural Labour." Transactions of the Obstetrical Society of London, Volume 2. 1860. Paper Read July 4th, 1860. P. 257-272. Discusses several cases where destructive operations were performed, as well as premature labour.

Montgomery, W.F. An Exposition of the signs and symptoms of pregnancy. From the Second London Edition. Philadelphia. 1857. P. 117-118 Decries the distinction in law about quickening; quotes Percival about the evil of extinction of the first spark of life. Discusses Lord Ellenborough's Law.  P. 119 Absurd to assume that the fetus does not enjoy vitality from its first moment of existence. Quotes Cummin, the communication of life is the very essence or consequence of conception.

Moore, William. Elements of midwifery, or the arcana of nature, in the formation and production of the human species elucidated; comprehending an anatomical description of the female organs of generation, with physiological observations on their destined offices. To which is added, instructions to the accoucheur how to proceed in every case that is possible for the foetus to present in utero; together with a full investigation of the causes of those disorders to which women and children are liable, during the first month; with the most rational method of observing them. London. 1777. P. 33 Says at first the embryo is possessed only of vegetative life, without a trace of animal life. Says as objection to spermism; animalcules have animal life. P. 45 Again says the embryo enjoys but a vegetative life.

Morley, John. An Essay on the Symptoms of Pregnancy from the Earliest Stage to the Period of Quickening. London. 1829. P. 26 It was formerly thought quickening was the time that the unborn was endowed with animation. Criminal code absurdly founded on this idea-- as if an animal could grow without being alive.

Murphy, Edward William. Lectures on the principles and practice of midwifery. Second Edition. London. 1862. P. 21 Image of fetus in uterus. P. 281 Craniotomy looked upon with dread or horror.  The natural reluctance to destroy human life has been increased by religious prejudices in some countries. The anathema of the doctors of the Sorbonne exerts an influence on the practitioner. P. 331 Picture of craniotomy. P. 343 Premature Labour is called "Abortion."  Abortion has been abused, so there is prejudice against it, and only now is it receiving attention.

Nasmyth, T.G. "Induction of Premature Labour in Woman who had been Delivered Formerly by Craniotomy; Child Alive." Edinburgh Medical Journal. February 1882. Calls for the law to interfere with woman who make "avoidable" mistakes and undergo serial craniotomies for their pregnancies.

Nicolaides, Kyprios et al. "Normal Ranges of Embryonic Length, Embryonic Heart Rate, Gestational Sac Diameter and Yolk Sac Diameter at 6–10 Weeks". Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. Volume 28 p. 207-219. Published September 18, 2010. I'm posting this because the Crown-Rump Length table on page 212 is a very useful guide. Nicolaides is known as the "Father of Fetal Medicine."

Nihell, Elizabeth. A Treatise on the Art of Midwifery. Setting Forth Various Abuses Therein, Especially as to the Practise with Instruments. London. 1760.

Oldham, Henry. "A Case of Caesarean Section." The Medical Times. Volume 23. February 22, 1851. P. 215-217.

"On Abortion." Medico-Chirugical Review.Vol. 13 No. 25. June 1830. Possibly written by James Johnson, editor, and physician to the King. According to this article, abortion happens in every town in England with impunity. The editor in footnote on p. 110 says that the shapeless embryo has the same claim to protection as the more mature fetus.

Osborn, William. An Essay on Laborious Parturition, in which the division of the symphysis pubis is particularly considered. London. 1783. Section II P. 35 is a fascinating essay on the moral value of the unborn child. Unborn children feel no pain, so when their heads are cracked open to save the mother it's not cruel. The mother is far more valuable than the unborn. If the unborn lose their lives, it's not a great loss-- they barely have the life principle. Barely a loss to the parents.  P. 38 Mentions "The Petition of the Unborn Babes" -- a pamphlet accusing obstetricians of cruelty. This essay sounds like he is trying to present an apology of his profession and his ideas.

Osborn, William. Essays on the Practice of Midwifery. London. 1792. P. XIX He wants to banish the c-section and the sectioning of pubis.P. 197-198 Comparison of life of child versus mother. P. 201 Loss of life before birth is trivial. P. 201-202 Unborn child cannot feel apprehension and probably feels little or no pain. P. 203 We speak of children before birth as if they had all the properties of life. Cites the Petition of the Unborn Babes.

Ould, Fielding. A Treatise on Midwifry: In Three Parts. Dublin. 1748. Pages xxii-xxiii attributes the practice of the C-section to the Catholic belief that children must not be unbaptized; considers it a cruel operation. P. XXIV says many Catholics like Mauriceau are opposed to the c-section. Cites ruling of Sorbone on instances when life of mother or child is to be preferred. Can be read in French translation of Deventer's book. P. 357. P. 76-78 Relates story of Mrs. Tilsonbury who was in labour for two days but refused to have her child destroyed. P. 141 Fears hasty actions that could murder a helpless innocent baby. Must answer to the creator for it. Such a person is next in guilt to a woman who murders her own child. P. 142 Destruction of child is sometimes necessary.

Perfect, William. Cases in Midwifery. Volume 1. Rochester. 1784.

Perfect, William. Cases in Midwifery. Volume 2. Rochester. 1784.

Portal, Paul. The Compleat Practice of Men and Women Midwives. Translated from the French. London. 1763. P. 72-73 Don't proceed with the hook until the child's death is ascertained; but if the mother is in danger of death, one may use it if death is uncertain. P. 15 Description of baptizing miscarried baby.  Hook must not be used in cases of miscarriage unless one is certain the baby is dead.

"Physiology." The British Encyclopedia. William Nicholson, Ed. Volume V. [No pagination.]London. 1809. Lots of good details in this article. Addresses "vital principle."  Says a living body is a structure into which dead particles are continually brought for the purpose of combining together in various ways. Says fetus is animated by a kind of vegetable life at about 3 months (influences of Xavier Bichat?).  Formation of bones at 7-8 weeks. Mentions experiments by Spallanzani that refute aura seminalis. "The germ of the future beings pre-exists in the ovarium."  Describes vesicle, discovered by De Graaf. Rejects emboitement.  Says fetal existence is purely vegetative. Calls the fetus "an organ."

"Quickening," The Cyclopedia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature. Vol. 29. Abraham Rees, Ed. London: 1809. Encyclopedia article that says that life begins at conception.

Radford, Thomas. The value of embryonic and foetal life, legally, socially, and obstetrically considered. 1848.  Pro-life tract, denouncing the little consideration the unborn get under the law, from women and obsetricians. P. 19 Brings up how the value of the unborn's life is considered relative to the value of the mother's life. P. 19-20 A woman who knows she cannot deliver a viable child and gets pregnant should be subject to c-section. (Interesting, he allows only ONE abortion! ) Cites. Dr. Hull as someone who believes life of mother is more important than the life of the child. P. 21 Induced abortion not as safe as many believe. P. 22 Approves of premature labour to save life of child. P. 23 Craniotomy only allowable once. After that, mother should undergo c-section.

Ramsbotham, Francis H. The Principles and Practice of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery. Second American Edition. Philadelphia. 1843. P. 266 Duty to perform C-section if mother suddenly expires late in pregnancy or during labour. P.269-270 Discusses morality of abortion. Okay to save life, but not okay to save a woman from reproach-- indeed it is murder. P. 325 Decapitation should not be thought of until the baby is dead. Second American Edition here, 1861. With added notes.

Ramsbotham, John. Practical Observations in Midwifery: With a Selection of Cases, Part 1. London. 1821. Contains a number of interesting obstetric cases that can contribute to the study of the unborn.

"Remarks on the Doctrine of Generation by Germs and What are Called Internal Moulds by Professor Blumenback." Book Review. The Gentleman's and London Magazine. July 1787. P.  The reviewer is skeptical of the theory of preformationism. Asks why seminal fluid, of all fluid, should be the one to jumpstart the fetal heart.

Richerand, Anthelme Balthasar. Elements of Physiology. Third Edition. Translated by G.J.M De Lys, M.D. 1819. [First published circa 1801-1802.] P. 445: fetuses pre-exist in the ovaria of the females, but did not exist there since the beginning of the world as per Bonnet. Ovaries secrete germs. Says seminal fluid awakens it like an electrical power-- allusion to "aura seminalis." P. 446 new embryo has consistency of viscous glue.

Rigby, Edward. A System of midwifery. Second American Edition. Philadelphia. 1851. P. 60 At the earliest period, the human embryo is perfectly analogous to the eggs of birds, fishes and amphibia. P. 67 diagram of an embryo at 6 weeks. P. 80 Cites Dr. Montgomery on quickening-- says continued use of the term is meant to continue the error that life begins at quickening. P. 213 C-section not considered as dangerous in America as in England. P. 219 Premature labour considered one of the greatest developments in midwifery. Few improvements have met with such violent opposition. Denman one of the first to widely recommend it. P. 220 Premature labour diminished need for perforation. On the continent it was viewed as endangering mother and child. Opposition by Baudelocque. Called avortement artificiel in France. P. 225 German obstetrician by the name of Ossiander was strongly against perforation; said it was never necessary. P. 225 Must not subject healthy adult to so much suffering for the sake of a child who would die anyway.

Rigby, Edward. "Lectures on Midwifery and the Diseases of ChildrenPerforation--Artificial Premature Labour." The London Medical and Surgical Journal. Volume VII, Part II. April, 18, 1835. P.360-364. Very detailed discussion of craniotomy. P. 360 Mentions Osiander as an opponent of all craniotomy. P. 361 says Osiander would not consider operation perforation in cases of hydrocephalus. P. 362 Premature labour practiced more in "this country" than in any other place in the world.

Roberts, David Lloyd. The Student's Guide to the Practice of Midwifery. Third Edition. London. 1884. P. 281 Section on craniotomy. Says that Britain has the unenviable reputation of performing craniotomy more than anywhere else in the world, in a proportion of 6 or 8 to 1. Part of the reason is distinction between Protestant and Catholic countries. Destruction of fetal life held to be mortal sin in Catholic countries. P. 282 Convulsion, hemorrhage indication for craniotomy; any situation where one needs to save the life of the mother immediately. P. 286 Image of the perforation of the head. P. 289 Image of use of cephalotribe. P. 291 Image of decapitation with embryotomy scissors.

Robinson, Robert. The History of Baptism. 1817.

Rousset, François. Caesarean Birth: The Work of François Rousset in Renaissance France - A New Treatise on Hysterotomotokie Or Caesarian Childbirth. Translated by Ronald M. Cyr. Edited by Thomas F. Basket.  RCOG Press. 2010 (original 1581). Rousset was the first physician to advocate for the use of caesarian on living women. He was sharply attacked for this. This could provide context for discussions on caesarians in saving the unborn.

Royston, William. "Historical Sketch of the Progress of Medicine in the Year 1809 by Mr. Royston." The Medical and Physical Journal. Volume XXIV. No. 137. July 1810. Royston is the editor of the journal. P.1-39. P. 38 Mentions an abortion case where the distinction concerning quickening saved accused from punishment. See footnote on quickening. Says that professional men have a vague idea about this point.

Ryan, Michael. A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence Compiled from the Best Medical and Legal Works. First American Edition. Philadelphia. 1832. Notes and Additions R. Eglesfeld Griffith. P. 137 In a confused sentence says that killing a child closer to impregnation less of a crime than killing a full-term child. The earlier embryo is an imperfect being. She acts almost on a dead body, non homo est qui non futurus est. P. 127 Embryo is visible at fifteenth day. P. 128 Says laws on abortion in the empire are defective because they are full of absurdities. Embryo alive before quickening. Matrons could not determine if there was a pregnancy in early pregnancy. Some treatment for diseases produce abortion; implies could make him subject to prosecution. P. 131 No drug that causes abortion is safe for the mother. Crime of abortion is destruction of a human being. An 1831 edition of this book found here.

Ryan, Michael. A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence and State Medicine. London.1836. 2nd Edition. Lots of good stuff in this book. Calls abortion the murder of a human being. Says the distinction between quickening and non-quickening is a medical mistake, that life begins at conception. Also says that a son born of a Caesarean cannot inherit and cites Blackstone. Says fetus and woman are generally killed by abortion. Says law on abortion is based on erroneous physiology. Says  the law on abortion puts the doctor in a predicament because sometimes induced abortion is the requirement treatment for a disease. Says Hippocrates believed that the embryo was ensouled at 30 days after conception. According to him the law of Scoland says that the fetus is part of the mother's body (implying that life begins at birth.) Says embryocide and foeticide should be punished with death.

Ryan, Michael. A Manual of Midwifery and Diseases of Children with Complete Atlas. Fourth Edition. London. 1841. Lots of illustrations in this book, including of various obstetric operations.

Ryan, Michael. "Lectures on the Physical Education and Diseases of Infants and Children, by Dr. Ryan (...) Causes of Monstrosities-- Hygiene, or Rules for the Management of Women during Pregnancy, Parturition, after Delivery, and during Lactation, or Suckling." The London Medical and Surgical Journal. Vol. IV, No. 89 October 12, 1833. P. 358-362. Gives various theories for the development of monstrosities, including: a problem in the germ, and a misattachment between embryo and ovum. Tends to favour "pure accident" as an explanation.

Ryan, Michael. The Philosophy of Marriage in Its Social, Moral and Physical Relations. Fourth Edition. London. 1843. P. 132 Says a parent cannot procure an abortion. Calls it a species of murder.  Says it is generally not known that the embryo is a living being from the moment of conception. P. 259 The mind of the mother cannot have any effect on the fetus.

Sabatier,Raphaël Bienvenu . Traité d'anatomie complet. Paris. 1755. Says the miscarried must be baptized. NOTE-- this was published before Dinouart (but still after Cangiamila.) Cites Jerome Florentini for the idea that aborted fetuses must be baptized.

Severn, Charles.First lines of the practice of midwifery.  London. 1831. P. 133 section on foeticide and infanticide. P. 134 Abortion at whatever stage is equally abhorent. Abortion is arbitrary. Denounces concept of quickening.

Simmons, William. A Detection of the fallacy of Dr Hull's defence of the Cæsarean operation, etc. Manchester [undated but about 1799.] Part of Pamphlet war.

Simmons, William. Reflections on the propriety of performing the Caesarean operation : to which are added, observations on cancer, and, experiments on the supposed origin of the cow-pox. London. 1798. Published in December 1798. Helped launch a pamphlet war with John Hull, on c-sections. P. 22 Says Sorbonne that mother's life should be saved rather than child's. P. 26 Issue of comparative value of mother and child raised; says French practitioners do not dismember the child while alive. Says sometimes they sacrifice the mother. Cites Hunter: "Sufferings of patient be put to the scale" Simmons says Hunter's words represent the thought of all practitioners. Repeats this several times in the pamphlet.

Simpson, Alexander Russell."Basilysis for Dystocia from Hypertrophic Elongation of the Cervix Uteri." Edinburgh Medical Journal. Volume XXVIII. February 1883. P. 769-778. Says there will always be a need for craniotomy, and this method should be perfected. Image of "lessened" head on p. 776.

Simpson, James Y. The Obstetric memoirs and contributions of James Y. Simpson. Volume 1. W.O. Priestly, Horatio R. Storer, Eds. Edinburgh. 1855. A collection of his writings.  P. 621 -- from the British and Medical Review, dated 1841: In too many instances it implies the direct and deliberate murder of a fellow being. No desire to discuss morality of operation.  P. 623 Very difficult to ascertain death of fetus; craniotomy is performed to save mother. P. 836 Discusses method of inducing premature labour. No bioethical discussion about it.

Smellie William. A Treatise of the Theory and Practice of Midwifery, Volume 1. Fourth Edition. London  1762. Section on Conception starts p. 111. Discusses fertilization, but does not speak to preformationism, which would have been a major theory at the time. Says the process of conception is very mysterious because of the lack of opportunity to dissect pregnant women. P. 293 Destroying the child is saving a life, because without it, the mother is lost.

Smellie, William. A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Midwifery, Volume 1. Fifth Edition. London. 1766. Chapter on conception begins p. 111. P.113: Cites the names of embryologists. P.115 conception caused by fusion of sperm and ovum. P. 122 section on the magnitude, weight and appellations given to the ovum and child. P. 122: calls an embryo ten days after conception "a child." P. 125 section on abortion. P. 167: Section on miscarriages. P. 178: Section on the situation of the fetus in the uterus, a little bit on development.

Smith, John Gordon. The Principles of Forensic Medicine Systematically Arranged and Applied to British Practice.  London. 1821. P. 290 Abortion is the destruction of a human being. "We know almost nothing of it as a crime in our country, except where there has been illegitimate intercourse." P. 291 says it was believed that before a certain time the embryo was no more than a mass. Hence there was no criminality attached to it. P. 292 between 26th and 28th day, embryo attains size that is perceptible. By end of 35th day it is defined. P. 293 Premature expulsion not considered abortion after 7th month. P. 294 At impregnation, the embryo has all the constituent principles of a living being. Quickening not a mark of humanity but proof fetus has attained certain size. P. 295Eemmenagogues highly dangerous to mother. P. 299 Abortion often ends in death of mother. P. 302 Mentions ergot introduced in medicine to augment labour, used in abortions. P. 307-308 Defends premature labour to save mother. Says every medical student in Britain instructed in its principles. Emphasizes: humanity, safety and neccessity of this procedure.

Smith, William Tyler. Parturition and the Principles and Practice of Obstetrics. London. 1849. Page 1: Proposes to compare British and Continental obstetrics. P. 2-3: No life seems more valuable than that of a woman. P. 3 In many parts of the country, the midwife is part of a by-gone era. P. 4 Office of midwife will have to abolished. P.5 Obstetricians should discourage midwife practice. P. 6 The French show less consideration for women's feelings and lives than the British. P.7 Speaks of Protestant and Catholic bias in obstetrics. P. 7 In France, safety of child is often held to be more important. P.8 Has table showing effects of Protestant/Catholic bias. P. 8 Protestants and Catholics want to save both lives equally where possible. May be argued that the French are not a religious people at all, but Catholic ideas so predominant. P.9 American midwifery is far more the child of France than that of England. P. 12 What may be criminal in a Protestant Catholic is allowed in a Catholic country and vice-versa. P. 12 Life is the sacred object of all obstetricians. None would raise the value of a life of a fetus to that of the mother. P. 13 Lying in institutions deny the unmarried women, says it's unfair to the children.

Spence, David. A System of Midwifery Theoretical and Practical. Part the Second. London. 1784. I'm including this book for its fetal imagery p.  564. Part One is here.

Spratt, G. Obstetric Tables. London. 1833.  I'm including this for the images. They seem to have been reproduced elsewhere.

Spratt G. Obstetric Tables. Philadelphia. 1848. Subject of conception is deeply interesting. Many images.

Staunford, William. Les plees del corone. c. 1556. Written in law French. P. 21 discusses the killing of fetuses. Fetuses are not rerum natura. Therefore homicide is not involved in killing them, not a felony. Also, they have no baptismal name.

Streeter, John Soper. Practical Observations on Abortion. London, 1840. A medical text dealing mostly with miscarriage but also comments on fetal development. Includes some images.   P. 2 Says that the distinction regarding quickening in the law is unscientific.

Suarez, Francisco. De Anima. According to this book review on Hilaire's book refuting immediate animation, Suarez said that animation occurs as soon the body starts to organize. Sources St. Albert Magnus' De Anima for this belief. It was published 1621, coincidentally the same year that Fienus published his theory that the soul enters the body no later than three days after animation.

Swayne, Joseph G. "On Embryotomy in Presentations of the Superior Extremities."  Association Medical Journal. Volume 3. October 12, 1855. P. 930-932. Discusses several cases of evisceration. Says that the presentation is such that the pressure from the uterus on the cord will nearly always kill the child.

Swayne, Joseph G. "On the Induction of Premature Labour." The British Medical Journal. August 8, 1874. P. 165-168.  Twenty cases of premature induction. Calls it an unfrequent operation. One was in the 4th month for vomitting. The rest were in the 7th month or later. 13 of 20 children died. Last page: does not consider it safer than craniotomy for the mother. Version on Google Books.

Taylor, Alfred Swaine. The Principles and practice of medical jurisprudence. Volume 2. Philadelphia. 1873. P. 179ff section on abortion and other topics related to the unborn.  P. 179 Criminal abortion rarely attempted before the third month. P. 180 Crime of abortion performed by irregular medical practitioners. Women often died from inflammation. P. 182 Says members of the medical profession have committed criminal abortion.

Tidy, Charles Meymott. Legal Medicine. Volume 3. New York. 1884. P. 96 Section on abortion. Extensive discussion on topic, including cases (though not all English, some from other countries.)

Travers. "On the Destruction of the Foetal Brain by Mr. Hammond." The Medical Intelligencer. November 1823. P. 613-614. Relates of a case of a botched craniotomy. The baby was born alive and lived 56 hours.

Watt, John James. Medical Dictionary: Containing an Explanation of the Terms in Surgery, Medicine, Midwifery, Anatomy, Chemistry, &c. &c. &c. 2nd edition. London: 1813. Has some interesting tidbits.  Defines embryo "the rudiments of a child in the womb before perfect formation." A search for "foetus" will bring up those bits.

Wesley, John. A survey of the wisdom of God in the Creation: or A compendium of natural philosophy. London: 1763. Interesting for what he doesn't say. He doesn't speak to the idea of immediate animation, but he does reference preformation.

The mother's legacy to her unborn child. First published 1625, re-printed 1852.

Rules for Baptism 1962 Roman Ritual -- Note that extraction must be done by those whose profession it is to do that. Baptism may be done in utero or when baby is half-born.

"Discussion in the Academy of Medicine of Paris, on Induction of Premature Labour." The Lancet. August 28, 1852.   p. 220. A discussion of the abortion debate that took place at the Academy of Medicine February-March 1852. Interesting to note: the Lancet was much more interested in the debate on premature induction for vomiting than on the issue of induction for narrow pelvis.

Speculations on the Mode and Appearances of Impregnation in the Human Female: With an Examination of the Present Theories of Generation. Edinburgh. 1789. Says "by a Physician." Google and other sources attribute it to Robert Couper.

The London Practice of Midwifery. Third Edition. London. 1811. P.59-60 Most likely explanation for conception is that semen unites with ovum to produce fetus. P. 100 Discusses procuring abortion; says there are ads in papers for this purpose. P. 176 Discusses heated debate about c-sections in Manchester. Re: craniotomy, terrible but must be done even on a living child. P. 178 Says in this country there are no religious injunctions by which we are compelled to save the life of the child, though it be done by sacrificing the mother. Although in other countries such ordinances exist. If one child has to be sacrificed, there is no scruple as to which: the child. The child has no connexions, no friends to whom the child will be a loss; no desire to remain in the world. (P. 179) Whereas woman is a useful person to the world.

The Compleat Midwife's Practice Enlarged. London. 1697. A popular book of midwifery, containing many anatomical descriptsion. Reminiscent of Aristotle's Masterpiece.

"Modern Improvements in the Conduct of Labor." (Abstract). The Medical and Surgical Reporter, Volume 26. May 4, 1872. P. 392-394. Discusses various destructive operations.

"Proceedings of the Dublin Obstetrical Society." Saturday February 17th, 1872. The Dublin Journal of Medical Science, Volume 53. P. 255-280. Numerous destructive operations discussed, including decapitation, evisceration, embryotomy. Also: concealed pregnancy, feigned pregnancy, pregnancy of the condemned,

"Review: The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics by Gunning S. Bedford." The Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science.  No. LXVII. August 1862. P.101-111. Gives Bedford a very bad review for his book. Shocked by his comment that he would choose c-section over embryotomy in cases of contracted pelvis.

"Review: The Births of Misshapen, Diseased and Dead Children by Dr. A.F. Hohl" [book in German]. Hohl advocates for disabled unborn children. London Journal of Medicine. Volume 3. No. 25, January 1851. P. 50- 54. Strong but imperfect ethic of trying to save both mother and child in difficult labours.

"Statistics of the Lying-In Hospital at Berlin." Glasgow Medical Journal. Volume First. April 1853. P. 122.

"Review: An Essay of Laborious Partuition, in which the Division of the Symphys Pubis is particularly considered by William Osborn.The Critical Review: Or, Annals of Literature, Volume 57. September 1783. P. 168-170. Says he disagrees with Obsborn's claim that the child does not feel pain in the womb.

"The British Medical Assocation Meeting at Bristol" (July 31, 1894), The Lancet, August 5, 1894. Abstracts of discussions.P. 286-299. P. 293 Abstract of talk given by Barnes on premature labour.

"Induced Premature Labour, Its True Value." The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. April 1871. P. 581-582. A review of research by a German physician, Spiegelberg. Stats show that premature labour is not as safe for mother as once thought, and does not produce as many live babies as thought.